(Continued from back flap)
The "Literary Voyager" is recognized as the first magazine
produced in Michigan and one of the first of its kind in the
frontier west. It has been hailed by one contemporary writer
as "embryonically the first ethnological magazine in America."
The publication, incidentally, tells much about the early career
of Henry Schoolcraf t It reflects his growing interest in studying
all aspects of Chippewa culture and vividly illustrates how the
young Indian agent brought a "spark of literary life" to a re-
mote frontier outpost. And finally, the "Literary Voyager"
reveals Schoolcraff s dependence on the John Johnston family
of Sault Ste. Marie for their help in assembling data on the
Chippewa and neighboring Indian tribes.
Mentor L. Williams, in his preface to SCHOOLCRAFT'S
INDIAN LEGENDS, expressed the hope that "at some future
date the other facets of Schoolcraft's exhaustive investigations
of the Indians can be rescued from the chaotic state in which
they now exist." Philip Mason's efforts in locating and transcrib-
ing the thirteen issues of the "Literary Voyager" which survived
several careless transfers of Schoolcraft's papers from one re-
pository to another are certainly a most valuable contribution
to that goal. Mr. Mason is currently an associate professor of
history and archivist at Wayne State University.
119623 "" if
Edited, with an Introduction by
PHILIP P. MASON
The last decade has witnessed a renewed
interest in the career of Henry Rowe School-
craft, the famous nineteenth century Indian
agent, explorer, writer, and student of Indian
life and customs. Although he wrote more than
twenty full length volumes and hundreds of
articles on the Indian, few of his major works
axe available except in the rare book rooms
of libraries or in private collections.
Starting in 1953, Michigan State University
Press began to republish Schoolcraft's major
studies. Mentor L Williams edited the first
two publications: SCHOOLCRAFT'S NAR-
RATIVE JOURNAL OF TRAVELS ...to
the Sources of the Mississippi River in the
Year 1820 (1953, now out-of-print but to be
reprinted in the near future) and SCHOOL-
CRAFT'S DTOIAN LEGENDS (1956).
After Professor Williams' untimely death in
1956, Philip P. Mason continued the series
with SCHOOLCRAFT'S EXPEDITION TO
LAKE ITASCA: THE DISCOVERY OF
THE SOURCE OF THE MISSISSIPPI
(1958), which contained the extaat diaries,
journals, reports, and correspondence of the
leaders of the expedition.
1 In addition to his published works, Henry
Schoolcraft presented some of his Indian
knowledge to a select public in the odd form
of manuscript magazines. Although now al-
most unknown, except to a few bibliographers,
these magazines were, in their day, widely
(Continued on back
The Literary Voyager
A Chippewa Chief
McKenney & Hall, History of Indian Tribes of North America, I84H, Vol. I, p. liiB
The Literary Voyager
EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION
BY PHILIP P. MASON
MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Michigan State University Press
Library of Congress Card Catalog Number : 62-15112
Manufactured in the United States of America
to the memory of
John Johnston and his Chippewa wife,
Ozha-guscoday-way-quay, the Woman
of the Green Valley
The last decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the career of
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, the famous nineteenth century Indian
agent, explorer, writer, and student of Indian life and customs.
Although he wrote more than twenty full length volumes and hun-
dreds of articles on the Indian, few of his major works are available
except in rare book rooms of libraries and in the hands of private
collectors. Starting in 1953, Michigan State University Press began
an ambitious project to re-publish Schoolcraft's major studies and
thus make them readily available to the American public. Mentor L.
Williams edited the first two publications: Schoolcraft' s Narrative
Journal of Travels . . . to the Sources of the Mississippi River in the
Year 1820 (19S3) and Schoolcraft j s Indian Legends (19S6). After
Professor Williams' untimely death in 19S6, the current editor con-
tinued the series with Schoolcraft' s Expedition to Lake Itasca: The
Discovery of the Source of the Mississippi (1958), which contained
the extant diaries, journals, reports, and correspondence of the leaders
of the expedition.
Even more important to the student of the American Indian than
Schoolcraft's published works are the voluminous collections of his
official and personal papers in the National Archives, the Library
of Congress, and in other research repositories throughout the country.
They contain a wealth of untapped source material about the
aborigine and his culture. For Schoolcraft not only had a sense of
the historic role he was playing as Indian agent and ethnologist on
the frontier during a critical period, but he recognized the necessity
of creating and preserving accurate records of his activities. He
provided also that his voluminous collection of Indian materials should
remain intact and be made available to future generations of scholars.
Accordingly, after his death, his papers were given to the Smithsonian
Institution and later to the Library of Congress.
With the active support of the National Historical Publications
Commission and Michigan State University Press, the editor has
commenced a series of publications of the "Papers of Henry School-
craft." The "Literary Voyager," a manuscript magazine produced by
Schoolcraft during the winter of 1826-27 was selected as the first pub-
lication. Later, the papers of Schoolcraft as Indian Agent and Sup-
erintendent of Indian Affairs for the Upper Lakes will be published.
Unfortunately, the Schoolcraft papers were hopelessly disarranged
after they were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution in 1878.
Part of the collection was transferred to the Library of Congress
prior to 1897 and the remainder in 1942. In the process, several
issues of the "Literary Voyager," which Schoolcraft was preparing
for publication in book form in the 1850's, were lost. I devoted two
years to a search of the major Schoolcraft collections for copies of
the missing issues before deciding to edit the incomplete set in this
I retained the original text except for corrections of obvious copy-
ing errors. Schoolcraft 's punctuation has been retained also even
though his practice of separating subjects and predicates with commas
is outdated. Some spelling changes have been made to avoid confusion
since Schoolcraft habitually used variant spellings of Indian names
even within the same paragraph. In the notes which appear at the
end of the volume, brackets are used to distinguish Schoolcraft's
original footnotes from those of the editor. The editor has attempted,
whenever possible, to identify the contributor of each article and
the informants of the Indian legends. Much of this information
was obtained from the Schoolcraft papers in the Library of Congress
which contain many of the original stories signed by the contributors.
There has been no attempt to make an anthropological analysis of the
Indian lodge stories published in the "Literary Voyager;" this is a
task for the professional.
I wish to acknowledge the assistance of many persons. Dr. Philip
M. Hamer, former Executive Director of the National Historical
Publications Commission, and Dr. Oliver W. Holmes, its present
executive officer, have supported the Schoolcraft project from the
beginning. Dr. F. Clever Bald of the University of Michigan and
Professor Leslie L. Hanawalt of Wayne State University have offered
many helpful suggestions. I am grateful also to Dr. Daniel J. Reed,
Library of Congress; Dr. James Heslin, New York Historical Society;
Mr. James Babcock, Burton Historical Collection; Miss Geneva
Kebler and Mrs. Elizabeth Rademacher of the Michigan Historical
Commission; Mr. Howard Peckham of the William L. Clements
Library, University of Michigan; Miss Myrtle Elliott and Mrs.
Beulah Miller of the Chippewa County Historical Society; and Mrs.
Esther Loughin of the Michigan State Library. Mr. George Wiske-
mann of Lansing generously made available to me his rare collection
of Schoolcraft books. I wish to thank also Miss Patricia Proudfoot
of the Wayne State University Archives for her assistance in proof-
reading the manuscript and her thoughtful suggestions. Finally, I
wish to acknowledge the contribution of my wife, Henrietta, who
spent many weeks transcribing the longhand issues of the "Literary
This study was made possible through a grant from the American
Philosophical Society. The Division of Graduate Studies and Re-
search of Wayne State University assisted also in the purchase of
photostats and microfilm.
Philip P. Mason
April 13, 1962
No. 1, December, 1826
No. 2, December, 1826
No. 3, January, 1827
No, 4, January 12th, 1827
No. 5, January, 1827
No. 7, February, 1827
No. 8, February 13th, 1827
No. 9, February 16th, 1827
No. 11, February, 1827
No. 12, March 2nd, 1827
No. 13, March 10th, 1827
No. 14, March 28th, 1827
No. 15, April llth, 1827
Notes to "The Literary Voyager"
The figure of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft loomed large in the gallery of
men of learning in the mid-nineteenth century. He stood among a
small and special group of scholars those who made it their business
to open up and elucidate for the rest of the world the newer parts of
the new America: men who used as their daily tools not the serried
books of a college library but the canoe, the Indian guide, and the
gestures of sign-language. The nation knew him as explorer, Indian
agent, and ethnologist.
From 1818 when Schoolcraft explored the lead-bearing hills of Mis-
souri and the wilds of the Ozark Mountains until 1832 when he dis-
covered Lake Itasca, the true source of the Mississippi in the heart of
the northern forests, he had a part in many important and often dan-
gerous expeditions. As Indian agent for nineteen years 1822 to
1841 with headquarters at the half-Indian frontier posts of Sault
Ste. Marie and Mackinac Island, he served the tribes of northern
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. During his agencyship, which
witnessed the controversial and often painful federal policy of shifting
the Indians west of the Mississippi, Schoolcraft visited all of the
major tribes in his jurisdiction, consummated important treaties, and
ministered to the homely needs of thousands of red men.
In his twenty-five years on the frontier, Schoolcraft took advantage
of his unique position to collect data on all aspects of Indian life and
customs, recording in minute detail his anthropological observations
on Indian culture ceremonies, religion, superstitions, hunting and
fishing techniques, dress, language, and village life. With the aid of
interpreters, he recorded for the first time scores of lodge stories and
tribal legends of the Chippewa. He made bales of notes from talks
with fur traders, army officers, Indian agents, surveyors, and others
who knew the Indian first-hand. The Schoolcraft Papers in the Li-
brary of Congress testify to his skill as a researcher and his percep-
tiveness as an observer of the American aborigine. Later, after his
resignation in 1841 as agent, he continued his Indian studies under
the auspices of the New York Legislature and the Congress of the
United States. 1
The Literary Voyager
Unlike some of his contemporaries who studied the Indians but
were content to accumulate facts in antiquarian fashion, Schoolcraft
eagerly shared his findings with the American public in a series of
publications. He penned hundreds of articles for popular and scho-
larly journals and newspapers of his day and wrote more than twenty
volumes describing his explorations and the Indian. 2 His Indian lore
was used widely by writers, notably Henry W. Longfellow, who based
his epic poem, "Song of Hiawatha," on the legends from Schoolcraft's
Schoolcraft's most famous Indian study was Historical and Statis-
tical Information Respecting the History, Conditions and Prospects
of the Indian Tribes* of the United States published by Congress in
six folio volumes between 1851 and 1857 at a total cost of over
$150,000. Unfortunately, the author did not take time for careful re-
search, thought, and organization, and left himself open to sharp
criticism of future historians and anthropologists. But despite the
shortcomings of the volumes, which were partly eliminated by the
publication of an Index? in 1954 by the Bureau of American Ethnol-
ogy of the Smithsonian Institution, they contain a wealth of valuable
material on Indians. As one writer says, Schoolcraft's six- volume
study serves "as a monument to a great American explorer and
In addition to his published works, Henry Schoolcraft presented
some of his Indian knowledge to a select public in the odd form of
manuscript magazines. Although now almost unknown except to a
few bibliographers, these magazines were, in their day, widely circu-
lated among students of Indian culture. The most informative of
them was the "Literary Voyager" prepared weekly by Schoolcraft at
Sault Ste. Marie during the winter of 1826-1827. 5
This magazine, which Schoolcraft later gave the subtitle, "Muz-
zeniegun," a Chippewa word meaning "a printed document or book,"
contained articles, poems, announcements, etc., on all aspects of In-
dian life and customs. The subjects included historic Indian battles,
Indian ceremonies, superstitions, burials, fur trade, war chants and
songs, totems, the effect of alcohol upon Indians, and the intertribal
war between the Chippewa and Sioux. Of particular interest are the
biographical sketches of prominent Indian leaders, including Waub
Ojeeg or the White Fisher, the famous war chief at LaPointe; and
Shing-a-ba-wossin, head of the Chippewa band living along the St.
Schoolcraft presented for the first time in the "Literary Voyager"
some of the lodge stories that he himself collected and for which he
later gained national recognition. Many of them he later published in
Algic Researches, the Red Race of America, and the Myth of Hiawa-
tha. 6 Material on the pages of the "Literary Voyager" was used by
other writers as well as by Schoolcraft. Mrs. Anna Jameson, the well-
known English author, examined the magazines in detail and ex-
tracted several of the Chippewa legends for her book, Winter Studies
and Summer Rambles, first published in 1838. 7 Similarly, Dr.
Chandler R. Oilman reprinted in Life on the Lakes several of the
legends. 8 These books, however, do not give, as does the "Literary
Voyager," the source of each legend or the name of the informant.
Although only a few copies of each issue, and indeed sometimes
apparently only a single copy, were written, the "Literary Voyager"
achieved wide distribution. Each issue circulated among the citizens
of Sault Ste. Marie and then went to Schoolcraft's friends in Detroit,
New York, and other eastern cities. 9
The "Literary Voyager" is recognized as the first magazine pro-
duced in Michigan and one of the first of its kind in the frontier
west. It has been hailed by one contemporary writer as "embryoni-
cally the first ethnological magazine in America." 10 The publication,
incidentally, tells much about the early career of Henry Schoolcraft.
It reflects his growing interest in studying all aspects of Chippewa
culture and vividly illustrates how the young Indian agent brought a
"spark of literary life" to a remote frontier outpost. And finally, the
"Literary Voyager" reveals Schoolcraft's dependence on the John
Johnston family of Sault Ste. Marie for their help in assembling data
on the Chippewa.
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft was born in 1793 in the Manor of Rensse-
laerswyck, a small village west of Albany, New York. Even as a
young boy, his scholarly accomplishments were well-known in the
community. He supplemented his public school education with out-
side studies of his own and excelled in Latin, read widely in the
classics, learned French from a tutor, and had taught himself Hebrew
and German "with the aid only of grammars and lexicons." As one
The Literary Voyager
local resident observed, "he was generally to be found at home at his
studies, when other boys of his age were attending horse races, cock
fights, and other vicious amusements for which the village was fa-
mous." 11 This thirst for knowledge characterized Schoolcraft through-
out his career.
His literary abilities were also evident early. Local newspapers and
magazines first published his verse and essays in 1808, when he was
fifteen years old. In 1809, he organized a literary society among the
younger men of Hamilton, New York. It met to discuss contemporary
literary problems and, with Schoolcraft as editor, produced in manu-
script form a magazine, "The Cricket or Whispers from a Voice in
the Corner." It is not known whether this society flourished after
1810 when Henry moved to Geneva, New York, but he did continue
to edit the magazine until 1818 under the title, "The Cricket or
Parapetic Student." Devoted to philosophy and literary subjects, it
was obviously the forerunner of the "Literary Voyager" and other
manuscript magazines that he later edited.
Henry Schoolcraft planned to complete his formal education at
Union College in Schenectady but when the time came, his family
could not afford to send him. Instead, Schoolcraft went to work for
his father who was superintendent of a glass factory in Geneva, New
York. He must have learned the business well, for in 1813, he became
manager of a glass factory in Salisbury, Vermont, and later accepted
a similar position in Keene, New Hampshire. 12
He might have remained in the glass-making business for the re-
mainder of his life if an influx of British glassware after the War of
1812 had not forced the industry into bankruptcy. Thus in 1817, at
the age of twenty-four, spurred on by popular accounts of opportuni-
ties in the West and with the hope that his knowledge of mineralogy
would further his career, he left New York for the Mississippi region.
This trip took him to the rich lead region of Missouri where he spent
the following winter visiting mining operations around Potosi and
making detailed notes of his observations.
Upon his return to New York, Schoolcraft's account of this survey
was published under the title, A View of the Lead Mines of Mis-
souri The book, hailed by scientists as the first reliable study of the
"scientific resources" of the Mississippi Valley, boosted Schoolcraft's
national reputation as a mineralogist. The study set forth specific
recommendations for more efficient utilization of the nation's lead
resources and advocated the immediate introduction of a number of
mechanical improvements, including steam-driven pumps and up-to-
date furnaces. His key proposal was for the establishment of a federal
agency to supervise the lead mining industry.
The report attracted the attention of Secretary of War John C.
Calhoun who was concerned about the exploitation of the nation's
resources. At his invitation, Schoolcraft went to Washington, D. C.,
and presented his recommendations formally to President James Mon-
roe, Secretary of the Treasury, William H. Crawford, and Calhoun.
They, too, were impressed by the young scientist's observations and
promised to work for congressional support of a government-spon-
sored program. Schoolcraft let it be known that he would be available
for the position of superintendent of mines if Congress approved of
It is not known how much support the President and Secretary of
War gave to his recommendations, but it is obvious that they con-
sidered him competent. Within a year after the Washington trip,
Calhoun offered Schoolcraft a position as mineralogist for an explor-
ing expedition under the direction of Lewis Cass, Governor of Michi-
gan Territory. Schoolcraft readily accepted the position, not for the
meager pay of $1.50 per day, but because the trip would provide an
excellent opportunity for him to explore the natural resources of the
unchartered wilderness of Lake Superior and Minnesota.
The Cass expedition, conducted during the summer of 1820, proved
to be a turning point in Schoolcraft's career. His reports on the
natural resources of the explored area, particularly concerning the
copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula, brought him further
commendation from Secretary of War Calhoun and federal officials.
His account of the trip, Narrative Journals of Travels published by
Harper and Brothers in 1822, marked the young mineralogist as an
explorer and writer. The friendships he made on the expedition with
Lewis Cass, Charles C. Trowbridge, and other influential men served
him well in later life.
Other government positions came to Schoolcraft through the influ-
ence of John Calhoun and Lewis Cass, In 1821, he served as Secre-
tary to the United States Indian Treaty Commissioners in Chicago.
The following year, Calhoun offered him the position of Indian Agent
The Literary Voyager
for the Upper Great Lakes with headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie. His
reactions to the latter appointment were mixed. He was deeply dis-
appointed that Congress had not established a government depart-
ment of mines with a position for himself therein, but on Cass' urging,
he accepted the Indian post as a temporary position. At least his
"taste for natural history might certainly be transferred to that point
[Sault Ste. Marie] where the opportunity for discovery was the
greatest." 14 Late in June, 1822, Schoolcraft left Buffalo, New York,
by schooner for the Upper Lakes post.
Sault Ste. Marie was an ideal location for the new Indian Agency
headquarters. Located on the rapids of the St. Mary's River, it was
naturally accessible to the Indians living in the northern Great Lakes
area and for centuries had been a center of Indian settlement. In addi-
tion to a large band of Chippewa who resided permanently on the
riverbank near the rapids, thousands of their fellow tribesmen gath-
ered there every autumn to fish the rapids which teemed with
The Sault had long been a favorite camping site for white men as
well. Governor Samuel Champlain's young protege, Etienne Brule,
stopped there as early as 1622 and later in the century, Father
Jacques Marquette founded a mission near the foot of the rapids. The
French government later utilized the strategic location to establish a
permanent fort to control travel on the river. Fur trading companies
made the Sault a rendezvous for traders who wintered among the
Indian tribes west of Lake Superior.
The village continued to prosper after the British wrested control
of North America from the French in 1760. By the close of the
eighteenth century, several hundred families lived there English,
French, and half-breeds as well as several bands of Chippewa. Brit-
ish influence remained paramount in the Sault even after the United
States gained its possession in 1796. In fact, during the War of 1812,
most of Sault Ste. Marie's white settlers, and Indians as well, re-
mained loyal to the British.
After the War of 1812, the United States government made plans
to build a fort at the site and sent Governor Lewis Cass to Sault Ste.
Marie in 1820 for a meeting with Indian leaders to reassert the Amer-
ican claim to Indian land along the St. Mary's River preliminary to
construction of the fort. ir> The negotiations took a dramatic turn
when Sassaba, an influential Chippewa chief, denounced Cass and his
mission and retired to his lodge where he hoisted the "Union Jack" in
a crowning act of defiance. Acting courageously and decisively, Cass
went alone to the lodge of the belligerent chief and removed the alien
flag. Influential local citizens pacified Sassaba before blood was shed
and the meeting ended with an agreeable settlement. 16
As a part of the directive establishing a military post at the Sault,
the War Department also authorized the placement of an Indian
agency at the site, having jurisdiction over the tribes living in the
northern parts of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Henry Rowe
Schoolcraft became the new agent at the post and accepted the diffi-
cult task of gaining the Indians' cooperation as he carried out the en-
forcement of the policies of the Indian Bureau. In order to check
British influence in the Lake Superior region, the War Department
directed Schoolcraft to enforce rigidly the regulations which excluded
foreign citizens from the fur trade, and to discourage visits of Ameri-
can Indians to British fur posts in Canada. The Department also
warned him of the dangers of the growing rift between the Chippewa
and Sioux and the effect intertribal warfare might have upon the
safety of frontier settlements. Finally, Schoolcraft was told to prepare
the Indians of northern Michigan for a peaceful cession of their land
to the United States. 17
The greatest handicap under which the young agent worked was
his ignorance of the culture of the Indians. Although he had visited
Indian villages on his expeditions to Missouri and Arkansas in 1818,
and explored much of the territory within his agency on the Cass
Expedition of 1820, he knew very little about the red man and his
ways. In fact, his boyhood experiences had given him the prejudiced
stereotype of the Indian as a "bloodthirsty savage." He had listened
often to the accounts of his father and other pioneers as they de-
scribed their parts in the battles with the Iroquois during the Ameri-
can Revolution. "In these recitals," Schoolcraft wrote later, "the
Indian was depicted as the very impersonation of evil a sort of wild
demon, who delighted in nothing so much as blood and murder. It
was always represented as a meritorious act ... to have killed one of
them . . . thus ridding the land of a cruel and unnatural race, in
whom all feelings of pity, justice, and mercy were supposed to be
Lewis Cass was probably the first to spark Schoolcraft's interest in
The Literary Voyager
studying Indian culture. Like Thomas Jefferson, Albert Gallatin, and
a host of other statesmen, Cass was deeply concerned about the
plight of the American Indian. As Governor and Superintendent of
Indian Affairs of the Michigan Territory, he witnessed firsthand the
disastrous impact of advancing white settlement upon the aborigine
and his tribal customs. Although Cass was powerless to curb such
forces, he did recognize the great traditions of the North American
Indians and the urgent need to collect and preserve accurate data on
their history and culture before it was lost forever. He personally
undertook to collect such information from the Indian and persist-
ently advocated a nationwide federal program to accomplish these
In 1822, Governor Cass circulated a lengthy questionnaire, "In-
quiries Respecting the History, Traditions, Languages, Manners,
Customs and Religion ... of the Indians Living Within the United
States," which he sent to Indian agents, fur traders, and others in a
position to observe the Indian and his customs. It sought data on
traditions, religion, government, medicine, music, birth, death and
marriage customs, language, dances, and "peculiar societies." 10
Schoolcraft received a copy of the document from Governor Cass
when he stopped at Detroit enroute to his new post at Sault Ste.
Marie. He was so impressed with the questionnaire and Cass' plan
for further research on the Indian that he resolved to "be a laborer in
this new field." He was convinced that the "analytical approach"
which he had used to study natural history "could be used to study
the Indian, especially his language." 20
As soon as he arrived at the Sault, Schoolcraft plunged into the
work of studying his new charges. He first concentrated on the Chip-
pewa language because of its importance in his work. With the help of
Indians, interpreters, and the half-Indian Johnston family, he com-
piled an "Ojibway Vocabulary" and prepared declension tables of
verbs of the Chippewa tongue. Within a few years, he had won na-
tional recognition for his research on the grammar of the Ojibway. 21
As his contacts with the Indians increased, so did his curiosity
about other aspects of the red man's culture. His childhood image of
the "brutal savage" disappeared and in its place he came to have
great understanding and sympathy for the Indian. "It was amazing,"
he wrote in his diary in 1824, "to find him [Indian] a man capable
of feelings and affections, with a heart open to the wants and re-
sponsive to the ties of social life. But the surprise reached its acme,"
he continued, "when I found him whiling away a part of the tedium
of his long winter evenings in relating tales and legends for the
amusement of the lodge circle." 22
The legends of the Chippewa tribes fascinated the Indian agent
and in the years that followed, he collected scores of such lodge
stories. While thus engaged, he conducted what was probably the
first "oral history" program in America. He interviewed hundreds of
Indians who visited his agency headquarters in large numbers every
summer, and took advantage of his numerous exploring expeditions
into the interior to talk to isolated natives. Treaty meetings at Prairie
du Chien, Butte de Morts, and Fond du Lac also brought him in con-
tact with prominent Indian leaders. 23
Despite Schoolcraft's dedicated study of Indian culture and the
unexcelled opportunities afforded him by his positions as Indian
Agent and from 1836-1841 as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, he
could have accomplished little without the assistance of the Johnston
family of Sault Ste. Marie. From the day of his arrival at this frontier
post in 1822 until he resigned from the Indian Bureau in 1841, he
was closely associated with this remarkable family. They were his
chief informants on Indian life and deserved substantial credit for
furnishing Schoolcraft with the data and legends which he later
John Johnston was a strong self-sufficient individual who wielded
great influence among the settlers, fur traders, and Indians in the
Lake Superior area. 24 Born in 1762 in Ireland, the son of a wealthy
Scotch-Irish landowner, he came to North America in 1790 to obtain
a government position in Canada. He abandoned these plans, how-
ever, and accepted an invitation from an old family friend, Andrew
Tod, a prominent Montreal fur trader, to go to Mackinac Island.
Although he planned to spend only a few months there helping Tod
with his business, Johnston eagerly accepted his friend's offer to man-
age for a season the trading post at LaPointe on Chequamegon Bay,
Johnston's first winter at LaPointe would have been enough to dis-
courage even a seasoned fur trader. His assistants deserted him as
winter approached and took with them most of his supplies and equip-
ment. Rival fur traders refused to help him and the Indians at La-
Pointe could offer no assistance for they too faced starvation. It is a
credit to Johnston's stamina and ingenuity that he survived the win-
ter at all. Yet, not only did he manage to provide for his own needs,
but by spring, he was conducting a profitable trade with the Indians.
Despite the first season's difficulties, Johnston decided not to return
to Montreal. He was struck by the wild beauty of Lake Superior and
was enjoying his first taste of success as a trader. Furthermore, he
had fallen in love with Ozha-guscoday-way-quay, the youngest daugh-
ter of Waub Ojeeg, the famous and powerful chief of the Chippewa
at LaPointe. Although the chief distrusted the motives of most fur
traders, he consented to Johnston's offer of marriage. The following
year, Johnston took his young bride, whom he renamed Susan, to
Sault Ste. Marie where he established a temporary home on the bank
of the St. Mary's River. Within a few years his own fur trading busi-
ness became so lucrative that he built a beautiful house which stood
for decades as the finest in the whole "north country."
He outfitted scores of independent fur traders and, through his
wife's influence, did a thriving business directly with the Indians
along the St. Mary's River and the southern shore of Lake Superior.
In fact, Johnston was so successful in the fur trade that he received
offers to join forces with the powerful Hudson's Bay Fur Company,
and later its arch rival, the American Fur Company. 2 " His connec-
tions in government circles in Montreal and Quebec also proved in-
dispensable to him. By 1814, his assets were valued at nearly
$100,000, a respectable fortune for an "independent" trader. 26
The War of 1812 had ruinous effects upon Johnston's business
interests. Because of his active loyalty to England, American troops
pillaged his home and fur depot, destroying property valued at over
$40,000. Although their action violated international law, Johnston
was never able to collect damages from either the United States or
British governments, and never fully recovered from this financial
In the years following the war, Johnston did manage to win the ap-
probation of the United States government, even though he still re-
mained friendly with the English. On several occasions, he saved the
lives of American government officials by warning them of impending
Indian attack. In 1820, during his absence, his wife and children
The Literary Voyager
helped avert an attack on Governor Cass by hostile Indians. The
United States government later rewarded the Johnstons by granting
them land near the Sault. 28
The children of John Johnston and his Indian wife, Susan, played
prominent roles in the development of the Lake Superior region.
Lewis Saurin, the eldest of the eight children, became a midshipman
in the English navy and later was employed by the British Indian
Department at Sandwich, Ontario. His untimely death in 1825 at the
age of thirty-three ended his promising career. George, born in 1796,
held numerous positions in the United States Bureau of Indian Af-
fairs. He served as government interpreter to the Chippewa, and sub-
agent to the tribes at LaPointe, Wisconsin, and Traverse City, Michi-
gan. He attended several important Indian treaty meetings as an
agent of the United States. William and John, the youngest sons,
were engaged in the fur trade and noteworthy in the early history of
Sault Ste. Marie. Four daughters, Jane, Eliza, Charlotte, and Anna
Marie were equally active in the affairs of the frontier community. 29
The Johnston children received their early education at home, for
there were no schools at the Sault. Their father tutored them in litera-
ture, history, and the classics, and procured a large private library
with a variety of source material for their studies. Mrs. Johnston also
participated actively in the education of her children. In addition to
the routine household instruction she gave her daughters, Mrs. John-
ston indoctrinated all of the children in the customs and beliefs of
her people, the Ojibway or Chippewa. They learned legendary tribal
traditions, particularly the exploits of their grandfather, Waub Ojeeg,
and his father, Ma Mongazida. All of the children learned to speak
Chippewa fluently; in fact, Eliza used the native tongue exclusively,
as did her mother. Later the formal education of the children was
completed in private schools in Canada.
When Schoolcraft arrived at Sault Ste. Marie in 1822, the John-
stons invited him to stay at their home until his own quarters were
built. He eagerly accepted the invitation for he disliked living at the
nearby garrison and he warmed to the hospitality of John Johnston.
In the following months, a close friendship developed between the
two men as they found many common interests. The bond between
them is reflected in the correspondence which they carried on until
Johnston's death in 1828.
The Literary Voyager
Schoolcraft established a more permanent relationship with the
Johnston family in 1823 when he married Jane, their attractive and
talented eldest daughter. Born in 1800, Jane became her father's
favorite child and received special attention from him. She went with
him often on business trips to Detroit, Montreal, and Quebec and in
1809, he took her to Ireland to complete her formal education. School-
craft found her well read in history and literature and eager to help
him with his Indian studies.
After her marriage, Jane gained notoriety as the "northern Poca-
hontas" and was sought after wherever she travelled. Some writers,
including Anna B. Jameson, Harriet Martineau, and Thomas McKen-
ney made special trips to the Schoolcraft home to meet her. All were
charmed by her gracious behavior, her wit, and her intelligence.
She helped her husband constantly in his research. She acted often
as his interpreter and checked his studies of the Chippewa language.
She assisted with the production of the "Literary Voyager" and con-
tributed many of its interesting poems, accounts, and legends on the
Indian. Jane Schoolcraft was handicapped by frequent illness and
never fully recovered from the death of her first son, William Henry,
who died at the age of two years in 1827. She bore a daughter and
another son before her death in 1841.
Jane's brother, George, became one of Schoolcraft's closest friends
and advisers during their thirty-year working relationship. He served
in various official capacities on the Indian agent's staff and on the
recommendation of Schoolcraft, he was appointed to other positions
in the Indian Bureau. After Schoolcraft left his frontier post, he relied
heavily upon George to corroborate data on Chippewa culture and to
collect additional lore from Indians. The existing correspondence from
1825 to 18S5 between the two men reveals the debt of gratitude
owed George Johnston by Schoolcraft. 80
The other Johnstons served Schoolcraft often as his interpreters
and individually interviewed scores of visiting Indians. 31 Schoolcraft 7 s
most valuable informant, however, of all the Johnstons was Mrs. John
Johnston, his full-blooded Chippewa mother-in-law. Although she gave
up many of her tribal customs when, she married, she never lost con-
tact with her family or members of her tribe. She visited them often
and always opened her home in Sault Ste. Marie to visiting Indian
relatives and friends.
As a result of her lineal connection to Waub Ojeeg, the powerful
chief of the Chippewa of LaPointe, and her marriage to a highly
respected fur trader, Mrs. Johnston was esteemed by her fellow tribes-
men in the Lake Superior region, particularly those Chippewa living
near Sault Ste. Marie. She counseled them often and on many occa-
sions she intervened in their deliberations. As previously noted, she
helped persuade the Indians to negotiate with Lewis Cass in 1820.
Thomas McKenney, Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1824 to
1830, paid tribute to her in 1826 when he wrote: "As to influence,
there is no chief in the Chippewa nation who exercises it, when it is
necessary for her to do so with equal success." 32
Mrs. John Johnston was always ready to aid Schoolcraft in his
studies of the Indian. Using her sons and daughters as interpreters, for
she could neither read, write, nor speak English, she gave him in-
valuable information about the Chippewa their history, customs,
and beliefs. She alone supplied accurate biographical accounts of
Waub Ojeeg, Ma Mongazida, and other deceased Indian leaders. She
recounted also many legends which had been passed on to her by
Waub Ojeeg, who was known as "the greatest storyteller of his tribe."
Mrs. Johnston often arranged private meetings between School-
craft and certain politically important Indian leaders of the day. With
her urging, they permitted the Indian agent to attend many of their
ceremonies, some of which were secret and limited to tribal member-
ship. From these contacts, Schoolcraft gathered for publication in-
formation on the history of the Chippewa, hitherto unknown, and
enlarged his collection of lodge stories.
Mrs. Johnston's brother, Wayishkee or "The First-born," who re-
sided with his own wife and children at the Sault, gave Schoolcraft
much "reliable traditionary information about the Chippewa." Shinga-
bawossin, the ruling chief of the Sault Indians, whose father, Naido-
sagee, had been noted in his day for his repertoire of "imaginary
legends, allegories, tales and fables," also contributed material for the
Schoolcraft's debt to the Johnston family is best stated in the entry
of his private journal, July 28, 1822: "I have in fact stumbled, as it
were, on the only family in Northwest America who could in Indian
lore have acted as my guide, philosopher, and friend." 33
Schoolcraft undertook the publication of the "Literary Voyager" as
a constructive pastime during the winter of 1826-1827. The frontier
post was virtually cut off from the rest of civilization from late
November to May of the following year because ice and snow closed
off lake travel. Occasional overland mail deliveries by dog sled
throughout the winter provided some respite for the Sault settlers,
however, and the small community enjoyed social activities of its own
making. The soldiers and their wives gave numerous parties, dances,
and card games at the garrison and citizens of both the Canadian and
American communities of Sault Ste. Marie often staged other affairs
for public amusement. Schoolcraft usually refused invitations to these
functions because he disapproved of the heavy drinking at such gath-
erings and he considered card playing a complete waste of time.
The winter solitude did afford the Indian agent the extra time to
pursue his studies. He worked assiduously on his Chippewa dictionary
and assembled material he had accumulated during the previous busy
summer months. In December, 1826, he created a local reading society
which met weekly to discuss books and scholarly subjects. With the
Johnstons, other local citizens, and a number of officers and their
wives as members, Schoolcraft turned out the "Literary Voyager" as
an outgrowth of the society and with its sponsorship. He described
the magazine "as one of the little means of supporting existence in
so remote a place, and keeping alive at the same time the sparks of
literary excitement." Schoolcraft read each issue of the newspaper,
given the "ambitious cognomen" of "Literary Voyager" or "Muz-
zeniegun," at the meetings of the literary society before he passed it
on to the local residents. 34
Schoolcraft produced fifteen issues of the "Literary Voyager" be-
tween December, 1826, and April, 1827. Each issue consisted of an
average of twenty-four pages, measuring eight inches by fourteen
inches in size. He retained a master copy of the magazine in his files
and sometime after 1849, with the help of his second wife, Mary
Howard Schoolcraft, edited it for publication in book form. He never
succeeded in publishing it, possibly because he devoted his time and
energies to the preparation of his six-volume Historical and Statistical
Information Respecting the History, Conditions and Prospects of the
Indian Tribes of the United States.
The Literary Voyager
No.l. Sault Ste. Marie December
This tribe of North American Indians, has been known from our
earliest history, as a powerful body of hunters and warriors. They
spread over a large area of the continent. They provided men, dis-
tinguished for bravery. The Indian pronunciation of this term is Od-
jib-wa, the meaning of which is lost in antiquity. Like Illini & Lenopi,
it appears to designate men. Some assert it to be, men who are men,
basing this interpretation on the Indian term for nervous vitality.
They speak the Algonquin language, in the purest form of it. Tradi-
tion asserts that they came from the East. The language has the
greatest affinities with the Mohican of New England.
They had wars with fierce tribes whom they call Mundwas, Assi-
guns, and Nodowas. The French, on the exploration of this part of
Canada about 1641 found them seated at the falls on the outlet of
lake Superior, called Ba-wa-teeg, cascades or rapids. To this term, the
missionaries put the nominative of Sainte Mary, in reference to the
Virgin Mary. As this term is feminine, its abbreviation required that
fact to be noticed, which is done by the abbreviation Ste. in Sault de
Ste. Marie, or Sault Ste. Marie. The correction of the French dic-
tionary demanded the letter "1" to be dropped in the word Sault. But
with respect to geographical names, long in use, the "1" was retained.
Hence Charlevoix and his contemporaries and followers, retain the
abbreviation Sault Ste. Marie. The Indian term, is declined in the
Prepositional Bauwa-tiag-in, at, on, by.
Several unsuccessful attempts, were made by the French to name this
lake. The Chippewas call it, Gitchi-gumi, or sea-water, since it is their
term also, for the Sea. The Algonquin particle gum, denotes a liquid,
without regard to quantity, as Mushcowagumi, signifies strong water
The Literary Voyager
spirits, as sometimes written, in connection with the particle mee
making gumee or gomee. When the ocean is meant to be referred to,
the adjective is duplicated; making the sense, great-great water a
not uncommon mode of marking the superlative, in Indian languages.
A pretty, & distinctive name for this lake, may be made by prefixing
this syllable Al, to lomi, meaning Algonquin Lakes.
We are surprised, in examining these languages, to find the concrete
made up of the simple. Has it not been so, with all languages? The
ancients thought air, earth, and water to be elements. But the prog-
ress of chemistry has dispelled this delusion. Should philosophers be
surprised to find a similar process in analyzing these wild languages?
The French were impressed with the magnitude of this lake, and
bestowed, at separate times, several names on it, but none of them
have survived. Taking the particle goma, to stand for a large body of
water, and placing before it, the first syllable of the generic name for
the tribes living on it, we have the more poetic and equally truthful
PEBON & SEEGWUN (WINTER Si SPRING) 3n
A CHIPPEWA ALLEGORY
An old man was sitting alone in his lodge, by the side of a frozen
stream. It was the close of winter, & his fire was almost out. He ap-
peared very old, and very desolate. His locks were white with age,
and he trembled at every joint. Day after day he sat in solitude, & he
heard nothing but the sounds of the tempest, sweeping before it, the
new fallen snow.
One day as his fire was just dying, a handsome young man ap-
proached & entered his dwelling. His cheeks were red with the blood
of youth, his eyes sparkled with animation, and a smile played upon
his lips. He walked with a light & quick step. His forehead was bound
round with a wreath of sweet grass, in the place of a warrior's front-
let, and he carried a bunch of flowers in his hand.
"Ah, my son," said the old man, "I am happy to see you. Come in.
Come, tell me of your adventures, and what strange lands you have
been to see. Let us pass the night together. I will tell you of my
powers & exploits, and what I can perform. You shall do the same.
And we will amuse ourselves."
He then drew from his sack a curiously wrought antique pipe, and
No. 1. December 1886
having filled it with tobacco, rendered mild by an admixture of leaves,
handed it to his guest. When this ceremony was concluded, they be-
gan to speak.
"I blow my breath," said the old man, "and the streams stand still.
The water becomes stiff & hard as clear stone." "I breathe/' said the
young man, "and flowers spring up, all over the plains."
"I shake my locks," retorted the old man, "and snow covers the
land. The leaves fall from the trees at my command & my breath
blows them away. The birds get up from the water, & fly to a distant
land. The animals hide themselves from my breath, and the very
ground becomes as hard as flint."
"I shake my ringlets," rejoined the young man, "And warm showers
of soft rain fall upon the earth. The plants lift up their heads out of
the earth, like the eyes of children first opening in the morning. My
voice recalls the birds. The warmth of my breath unlocks the stream.
Music fills the groves, wherever I walk, and all nature rejoices."
At length the sun began to rise. A gentle warmth came over the
place. The tongue of the old man became silent. The robin and blue-
bird began to sing on the top of the lodge. The stream began to
murmur by the door, and the fragrance of growing herbs & flowers
came softly on the vernal breeze.
Daylight fully revealed to the young man the character of his enter-
tainer. When he looked upon him, he had the white visage of ice of
Peboan. 36 Streams began to flow from his eyes. As the sun increased
he gradually grew less & less in stature, and soon had melted com-
pletely away. Nothing remained on the place of his lodge fire but the
miskodeed 37 a small white flower, with a pink border, which is one of
the earliest species in a northern Spring.
The Manito Tree: There is a hill called by the French La Butte de
Terre and by the Indians Sat-tooke-wang situated a mile from the
Sault Ste. Marie, to which an Indian path connects. In the inter-
mediate distance near this path formerly stood a mountain ash tree
Amer. Sorbus, [Sorbus americana] from which the Indian tradition
says, there issued a sound resembling that possessed by their own
drum, during one of the most calm & cloudless days which have ever
been witnessed in the country. This occurrence took place long before
The Literary Voyager
the French had appeared in their country, & in consequence of it,
they supposed it the residence of one of their local manitos. From that
time they began to deposit at its foot, small green twigs & bows,
whenever they passed along that path, so that in time a high pile of
these small limbs was collected. During a violent storm the tree itself
blew down, & has since entirely decayed, but the spot was recollected
& the practice continued to the present time, & would probably have
been continued as long as any of the tribe had remained to observe
it, had not an accident put a stop to it. In order to procure wood from
La Butte de Terre for the use of the garrison, Col. [Hugh] Brady
issued an order for cutting a road 60 feet wide from the cantonement
to the hill. This road passed over the site of the tree, & the men with-
out knowing it, removed the consecrated pile.
Sault Ste. Marie July 16, 1822.
Superstition respecting Mines: There is a superstition prevalent
among the Chippewas & other Indian tribes, in regard to mines, the
effects of which we have long witnessed, without knowing the cause.
They are firmly impressed with a belief, that if they discover a mine
to the whites, they shall be punished with untimely death, or over-
taken by some disastrous circumstances. 38 This opinion, although
certainly not a strange one, to be held by a barbarous race, has never-
theless its origin in the transactions of an era, which is not only well
defined, but celebrated, in the history of the discovery and settlement
of America. It is very well known that gold & silver were the objects
which led Cortez & Pizarro into the interior of South America, &
ultimately to conquer the country & to tax & destroy its inhabitants.
It is equally certain that to escape the scenes of cruelty & oppression,
which followed the conquest of the Spanish invaders, many tribes &
fragments of tribes fled towards the north, those nearest the scenes of
the greatest atrocity pressing upon the remote, who in turn fled before
the more cultivated tribes of the South. In this way many tribes who
originally passed from the north along the Pacific to the Gulph of
California & thence over all New Spain, were returned towards the
north over the plains of Texas & the valley of the Mississippi. Among
these tribes, the traditions of the Chippewas says, that their ancestors
came, leaving on their way portions of their number, who have devi-
ated from the purity of their language, the sites of their mines &
No. 1. December 1886
minerals. Hence also the reason why they suppose all mineral sub-
stances bought for, & taken from their country are to be converted
into gold or silver.
Manito Poles: Whenever an Indian fails sick, his friends set up a
sapling or pole from which the bark has been peeled, near to his lodge.
Upon this a dog, sometimes a ribband, a piece of red scarlet, or silver
band, is tied, as an offering to the manito, to propitiate his wrath, &
relieve the suffering man. These poles are often painted with red, or
other stripes. A few days after our arrival, one of the officers of the
detachment, having occasion for some poles to put up a tent, sent a
soldier to take down, one of these manito poles, which stood near by.
But it was soon observed by the Indians and reclaimed. They placed
it in the same spot which it had been.
To OUR CORRESPONDENT, LEELiNAU 39
The letter of our female correspondent "Leelinau," we have perused
with pleasure, and recommend to the attention of our readers. The
simplicity and artlessness of her details of Indian life and opinions, do
not constitute the exclusive attraction of her letter. It develops truths
connected with the investigation of Indian history and traditions. We
solicit further communications from the same source, and feel ex-
tremely desirous for the promised "pretty songs and stories." Her
lines under Rosa, possess chasteness in the selection of her images,
united to a pleasing versification.
Character of Aboriginal Historical Tradition
To THE EDITOR OF THE LITERARY VOYAGER
I have learnt from a correspondent of yours, a very distant relation
of mine, your intention of publishing a Paper; the utility and true
meaning of which, has been fully explained to me by my friend. And
as you are willing to admit contributors from amongst my country-
men and women, it has induced me to take the liberty of addressing
you, and by this means I hope you will be able to form a more correct
opinion of the ideas peculiar to the Ojibways. And at the same time.
The Literary Voyager
my own humble thoughts shall no longer be breathed out to the
moaning of the winds through our dark forests; sounds which have
formed a lonely response to my plaints, since I became a poor Orphan.
Alas! no longer does my kind, fond mother braid up my black hair
with ribbons which the good white people gave me, because, they said,
I was always willing and ready in my duties to my dear father, when
he returned weary and thirsty from the chase. And oh! my father, you
can no longer kiss away the starting tear before it falls from my
cheek; nor kindly ask, What grieves your little girl! But ye, my par-
ents, are now both gone to the pleasant land of spirits! Still your poor
child feels as though you were near, nor will she ever forget the good
advice you have taught her!
I hope Sir, you will forgive this digression. If you had known my
parents personally, I am sure you would have loved them. My father
was descended from one of the most ancient and respected leaders of
the Ojibway bands long before the white people had it in their
power to distinguish an Indian by placing a piece of silver, in the
shape of a medal on his breast. However, my father had one of those
marks of distinction given him; but he only estimated it as being a
visible proof of amity between his nation and that of the whites, and
thought himself bound by it, to observe a strict attention to the duties
of friendship; taking care that it should not be his fault, if it did not
continue to be reciprocal. That medal my father used to wear, and it
is the only relic I still retain in memory of him, who first taught me
how to esteem and appreciate white people. He often told me that
you had a right knowledge of every thing, and that you knew the
truth, because you had things past and present written down in books,
and were able to relate, from them, the great and noble actions of
your forefathers, without variation.
Now, the stories I have heard related by old persons in my nation,
cannot be so true, because they sometimes forget certain parts, and
then thinking themselves obliged to fill up the vacancy by their own
sensible remarks and experience, but it seems to me, much oftener by
their fertile flights of imagination and if one person retains the truth,
they have deviated, and so the history of my country has become
almost wholly fabulous?
Sir, if I could write myself, (and not trouble my generous rela-
tion as I now do) I think I should strive to make you acquainted
No. 1. December 1826
with all our ancient traditions and customs without deceiving you in
the least just as I heard them from my father. Tell me sir, if it is
true, that our great father (The President) is going to cause a house
to be built, and a man in black to come and instruct us poor Indians,
and if we are to dwell in that house. My heart danced with joy, and
my eyes filled with tears of gratitude, when I first heard what is
I have often wished to know the reason and source of many things,
which have come immediately under my own observation, and not
knowing how to account for such curious circumstances, I have said,
"it must be a Manito." But you white people say that there is but one
true, great, and good God; then I feel a deep sense of regret that I
do not know more of that good Spirit, and what I ought to do to please
him. But when the man in black comes to teach us poor young
ignorant people the right way, I shall know better; and when I can
write, I shall not forget to send you all the pretty songs and stories
my mother used to teach me to be put in your paper. Until that
time shall arrive Sir, I must wish you health.
Suspended respiration, or apparent death, is not common among the
Chippewa Indians. Some cases have however happened.
Wauwaunishkum or Gitshee Gausinee of Montreal river, after be-
ing sick a short time, died, or it turned out, fell into a trance. He was
a good hunter, & among other things left a gun. His widow still flat-
tered herself he was not dead, & thought by feeling his head she felt
some signs of life. After four days had elapsed he came to life, &
lived many years afterwards He related the following story to his
companions That after his death he traveled on towards the pleasant
country, which is the Indian heaven, but having no gun could get
nothing to eat, & he at last determined to go back for his gun On
his way back, he met many Indians, men & women, who were heavy
laden with skins & meat, one of these men gave him a gun, a squaw
gave him a small kettle, still he kept on, determined to go back for his
own gun which had not been buried with him. When he came to the
place, where he had died he could see nothing but a great fire, which
spread in every direction. He knew not what to do, but at last deter-
mined to jump through it, thinking big forests were on the other side.
The Literary Voyager
And in this effort he awoke, & found himself alive. Formerly it had
been customary to bury many articles with the dead including all his
effects, clothing etc & even presents of food etc from friends wishing
them well. After this the practice was discontinued.
By AN Ojibway Female PEN
To SISTERS ON A WALK IN THE GARDEN, AFTER A SHOWER
Come, sisters come! the shower's past,
The garden walks are drying fast,
The Sun's bright beams are seen again,
And nought within, can now detain.
The rain drops tremble on the leaves,
Or drip expiring, from the eaves:
But soon the cool and balmy air,
Shall dry the gems that sparkle there,
With whisp'ring breath shake ev'ry spray,
And scatter every cloud away.
Thus sisters ! shall the breeze of hope,
Through sorrows clouds a vista ope;
Thus, shall affliction's surly blast,
By faith's bright calm be still'd at last;
Thus, pain and care, the tear and sigh,
Be chased from every dewy eye;
And life's mix'd scene itself, but cease,
To show us realms of light and peace.
ANCIENT OJIBWAY CUSTOM
It was a custom formerly prevalent among the Chippewas of the Lake
to observe the following ceremony. After they had finished planting
their corn & it began to shoot up into stalks, the wife chose an eve-
ning for walking around the field, past at dusk, dragging behind her,
her petticoat, being completely naked. After making the circuit of the
field, she came again to the lodge from which she started. This was
thought to insure a fruitful & abundant crop. and to preserve the
corn from the ravages of worms & vermin.
No. 1. December 1886
ANCIENT CHIPPEWA CAPITOL
I have heard much of La Pointe, as the French called, or Chegoimegon
in lake Superior, situated near its west end, or head. The Chippewa,
& their friends, the old traders & Boisbrules, & Canadians, are never
tired of telling of it. All their great men of old times, are located
there. It was there, that their Mudjekewis, or chief Ruler lived, & as
some relate, that an eternal fire, was kept. There lived, in compara-
tively modern time, Waub Ojeeg, & Andaigweos, and there still lives
one of their descendants in Gitchee Waishkee, the Great First-born,
or as he is familiarly called Pezhickee, or the Buffalo a chief deco-
rated with British insignia. His band is estimated, at 118 souls, of
whom 34 are adult males, 41 females, & 43 children. Mizi, the Catfish,
one of the heads of families of his band, who had figured about here,
this summer, is not a chief, but a speaker, which gives him some eclat.
He is a sort of petty trader too, being credited with little adventures
of goods by a dealer on the opposite, or British shores.
Do THE INDIANS REFUSE TO EAT CERTAIN ANIMALS?
There are few animals which the Indians reject as food. On this sub-
ject they literally fulfil, in part, the declaration of Paul "that every
creature of God is food; & nothing to be refused;" but I fear, the
poor creatures in these straits, do anything but show the true spirit
of "thanksgiving" in which this admonition is given. The truth is the
calls of hunger are often so pressing, to these northern Indians, that
anything in the shape of animal life, that will keep soul and body
together, is eaten in times of their greatest wants. A striking instance
of this kind, has just occurred, in the case of a horse killed in the
public service. The animal had, to use the teamster's phrase, been
snagged, & was obliged to be shot. To prevent unpleasant effects in
hot summer weather, the carcass was buried in the sand; but as soon
as the numerous bands of Indians, who are encamped here, learned
the fact, they dug up the animal, which was however, no wise diseased,
& took it to their camps for food.
A tragic occurrence took place last night, at the head of the portage,
resulting in the death of a Chippewa, which is believed to be wholly
The Literary Voyager
attributable to the use of ardent spirits, in the Indian camps. As soon
as I heard the facts, and not knowing to what lengths the spirit of
retaliation might go, I requested of Col. Brady a few men with a non-
commissioned officer, & proceeded, taking my interpreter along, to the
spot. The portage road winds along about a mile near the rapids, &
all the way, within the full sound of the roaring water, when it opens
on a green, which is the ancient camping ground, at the head of the
falls. A foot path leads still higher, by clumps of bushes & copsewood,
to the borders, of a shallow bay, where in a small opening, I abruptly
came to the body of the murdered man. He was a Chippewa from the
interior called Soan-ga-ge-zhick, or the Strong Sky. He had been laid
out, by his relatives, & dressed in his best apparel, with a kind of cap
of blue cloth and a fillet round his head. His lodge, occupied by his
widow and three small children, stood near. On examination, he had
been stabbed in several places, deeply in both thighs. These wounds
might not have proved fatal; but there was a subsequent blow, with
a small tomahawk, upon his forehead, above the left eye. He was en-
tirely dead, and had been found so, on searching for him at night, by
his wife. It appeared that he had been drinking during the evening
and night, with an Indian half-breed of the Chippewa River, of the
name of Gaulthier. This fellow, finding he had killed him, had taken
his canoe and fled. Both had been intoxicated. I directed the body to
be interred, at the public charge, on the ancient burial hill of the
Chippewas, near the cantonment. The usual shroud, on such occa-
sions, is a new blanket; a grave was dug, and the body very carefully
dressed, laid in the coffin, beside the grave. Before the lid was
fastened, an aged Indian came forward, and pronounced a funeral
oration. He recited the traits of his character. He addressed the dead
man direct. He told him that he had reached the end of his journey
first, that they should all follow him soon to the land of the dead, and
again meet. He gave him directions for his journey. He offered a
brief admonition of dangers. He bid him adieu. The brother of the
deceased then stept forward, and, having removed the head-dress of
the slain man, pulled out some locks of hair as a memento. The head-
dress was then carefully replaced, the lid of the coffin fastened, and
the corpse let down into the ground. Two stout poles were then laid
over the open grave. The brother approached the widow and stood
still. The orator then addressed a few words to both, telling the sur-
vivor to perform a brother's part by the widow. He then took her by
No. I.December 1886
the hand, and led her carefully across the open grave, over the two
poles. This closed the ceremony, and the grave was then filled, and
the crowd of white and red men dispersed. At night a small flickering
fire was built by the Indian relatives of the murdered man, at the
head of the grave. 41
STANDARD OF VALUE
In 1821 a reward of $30 was offered by the commanding officer at
Chicago for the apprehension of a deserter. The Pottowattomies of
that post brought him in, and claimed the reward. They received a
certificate from the proper officer for the amount. Thirty dollars was
a sum that brought no definite idea to their minds. There were five
claimants, and they immediately sat down, & divided the amount and
brought it, into raccoons skins. It was not until this had been done
that each one could appreciate his reward.
This daughter of the Cherokees, was one of the most remarkable
females which the missionary spirit & enterprize of the American
church of Christ, has brought to light in the Aboriginal race. Born in
1800 in a beautiful part of the proverbially beautiful Cherokee coun-
try, she was brought up by her parents, with more than the customary
attention & care, till arriving at the threshold of womanhood. Possess-
ing an attractive person & gentle manner, she was early noticed, by
strangers visiting the country, and had even learned to speak the
English language. She had also learned from Moravian missionaries,
who came there as early as 1800, the elements of spelling, & a little
reading. This, was the only advantage she had gained, in education,
when in 1816, the American Board [for Foreign Missions] planted a
regular mission & boarding school, in the Cherokee country. Catherine
was one of these first pupils, and soon became the first convert to
Christianity in that tribe. Readily the elements of English literature,
she pressed the principles of the bible, zealously, on her kinspeople.
She was the means of her father's & mother's, and two brothers con-
version; and became in truth the means of the awakening & reforma-
tion of the Cherokee nation.
Her moral character was ever, irreproachable. She had the clearest
views of bible truth, and had the faculty of translating into the
The Literary Voyager
Cherokee tongue, with an inestimable grace. No heady denunciation
proceeded from her lips, but she was ever, a produced example of
truth, she taught to others. She was entrusted with the school estab-
lished at Creek Path. She had a beautiful hand & conversed in a
spirited style. At least six years, she remained the light of the mission.
Her company was eagerly sought at the different stations & villages.
But she developed consumptive symptoms. Finding the necessary at-
tention could not be secured in the Cherokee country, she was re-
moved, by a skillful physician to his home at Huntsville, Alabama.
But the disease was too deeply seated for human skills, she lingered
a time, in lasting Christian perfection, at every phase, and finally
sank to her rest, in the month of July, 1824, with her mother & rela-
tives around her, by whom her remains were taken to her native
village for interring.
On Catherine's grave when spring returns
The natives wild wood flowers shall place,
With odours sweet & colors fair,
Fair emblems of that moral glow,
That marked her life & character,
And shall virtues e'er in own.
And oft the pious step shall go
To seek the spot where Catherine lies
And hopes, from her example, show
To lend her people to the skies.
Here, faith & hope, shall renew her breath,
Here, confidence, her lamp relume,
Here, resignation, smile at death,
And beauty triumph at the truth.
She led the way, with modest air
Rejoicing, she this day should see,
That op'ed a path, to worlds so fair,
For her loved tribe, the Tsallakee.
Mr. Anderson, her biographer says, 42 "They (the Cherokees) pos-
sess a language that is said to be more precise and powerful, than any,
No. 1. December 1826
into which learning has poured richness of thought, or genius breathed
the enchantments of fancy and eloquence" (p. 14). In another place
(p. 156) he observes "The Indian languages are said to have no
word that signifies spirit, nor the pagan Indians any idea of a spiritual
existence." The difficulty, it is apprehended, is not that they have no
term for spiritual existence, but that these spirits are destitute of
holiness. Their name for God, or the great being above, is, Ga-lun-
lah-ti-a-hi, and he is represented by the common interpreters, falsely,
it is thought, instead of appearing on earth in material form.
Her brother, David Brown in one of his letters (p. 67) terms the
Cherokee "the sweet language of Tsallakee." We are without the
etymology of this word. Adair says, Cher, means fire, but leaves out
that term. The word Tsallakee, reminds us of Hakewelder's, Tsalla-
Theories of converting Indians, requires caution. "The position"
continues the biographer of Catherine Brown, "that civilization must
precede Christianity, is so unsupported by facts is so opposed to all
experience, that one would think it could hardly be advanced by en-
lightened philosophers, or received by rational Christians. What is
civilization?" We believe Christianity & civilization, act, as one to-
gether, as cause or effect. One cannot exist without the other.
Civilization is a system of restraints, by which old habits and
opinions are put off, and new ones taken up. To enter the private
dwelling, or mission school; to put on the clothing of civilized man;
to take meals, retire, rise, wash the hands and face, attend stated
duties or labors, every day at fixed hours; or to become familiarized
to the dwellings, fields, and ordinary economy of civil life, are among
the essential elements of civilization. An Indian, cannot long be sub-
jected to these restraints, without being influenced by them.
Without some previous discipline of this kind, no Indian youth
taken from the forest, is likely to become civilized, and we are free to
declare our opinion that little success will attend the preaching of
Christianity to uncivilized savage men. Yet civilization without Chris-
tianity may be a failure. The lessons of experience on this subject
ought not to be forgotten. No sects were ever animated with more zeal,
in this pious work, than the Jesuit fathers. They followed the Indians
in their hunting excursions, and attended them in their seasons of
feasting and fasting, want and warfare, enduring perils and hardships,
The Literary Voyager
which prove a total abstraction from all selfish, or personal con-'
siderations. But they effected no radical change in the vital moral
habits or customs of the Indians. They imposed but few restraints;
they taught no new methods of economy, and in fact, notwithstanding
their own reports, they made few real conversions to Christianity.
They left the Indian, where they found him a savage in the forest;
and after the lapse of a century, a vague tradition among some of the
tribes, where they laboured, and here and there, a crucifix, worn
chiefly, as an ornament, and not as a symbol, is all that often remains
in modern times, to attest their labors.
Ask for St. Mary's, or for St. Ignace,
The name is all the traveler can trace.
EXPERIMENT ON THE CAUSE OF TEMPERANCE WITH THE INDIANS OF
Every effort to restrain the use or introduction of ardent spirits among
the Indians, is commendable. It is useless to lament the existence of
evils, if we do not set ourselves about remedying them. Every person,
who has paid the least attention to this subject, must be aware, how
difficult it is to enforce, either corporate or congressional laws, against
practices which custom sanctions and convenience dictates. Custom is
often more powerful than law, even in a land of law, and the axioms
of reason and right, are in vain urged in opposition to pecuniary in-
terest. This is emphatically true on the frontiers, and it is of the
frontiers I purpose speaking. Popular errors demand popular correc-
tives, but it requires time to introduce them, and time to enable them
to operate. Rash and hasty measures would only involve public offi-
cers in difficulties, which are easier excited than quelled. Where much
remains to be accomplished, it is better to do a little that is practi-
cable, than to attempt much which cannot be effected. Such at least,
were the views, which have been acted on, in a public assembly of the
Indian tribes, at Prairie du Chien in 1825.
Individual examples operate with great force upon the minds of the
Indian. Every good man, whether in place, or out of place, has it i'n
his power to do much to correct the prevalent practice of selling
liquor to this unfortunate portion of the human race. Indians as they
are, their condition would be much improved, if, in our intercourse
No. 1. December 1826
with them, our citizens could be induced uniformly to think like
philanthropists, to feel like Christians, or to act like men.
At the conclusion of the treaty just held, at which, the principal
tribes on the Upper Mississippi were assembled, a public feast was
given, by the United States Commissioners to the whole collected
body of the tribes, who had assisted in the proceedings. By address-
ing the appetites of men under such circumstances, the good feeling
which they had displayed in the settlement of their territorial bound-
aries, was sought to be confirmed, and to be left associated in their
minds with pleasing recollections. Such feasts, in which each is invited
"to take his portion," and rejoice in his labor, are not uncommon on
like occasions. But this, particularly commends itself to our notice,
by its being a feast enjoyed without ardent spirit*.
To prove to the Indians the truth of what has often been asserted,
that it is not the value of the liquor to our government that prevents
its being liberally distributed on public occasions, but solely, the
dread of its injurious consequences to them, an ample quantity of
whiskey was also brought into the centre of the bower under which
the tribes were peacefully partaking of meat and bread. The weather
being very warm, they were supplied, during the repast, with a
beverage consisting of sugar and water. After the repast was finished,
every one of the red guests appeared anxious for the arrival of the
moment, when, as they expected, the whiskey also, would be dis-
tributed. While all eyes were intent, on the movement, a party of
employees came, bearing a considerable number of large, new capa-
cious tin kettles, such as are used in the trade, filled to the brim with
high wines, setting them down carefully, in a row. At this moment the
Commissioners came forward, and one of them addressed them, in a
few brief and pertinent remarks, on the bad effects of drinking; the
baneful influence it had already exerted upon their character as na-
tions, and as individuals; and the still worse effects that must be ex-
pected to ensue, if so pernicious a habit was persevered in. When
their attention had been fully called to the subject, and every eye was
directed to the speaker, the vessels of whiskey, standing in front of
them, were overturned and spilled out upon the grass. The liquid
might be seen filling the inequalities in its surface, forming pools or
passing off beneath the rustic benches.
But the Indian is a stolid man. He sat moveless. He did understand
the lesson taught. Wonder, astonishment, and disappointment might
The Literary Voyager
be seen depicted in the fixed countenances of the multitude, as they
sat beholding this novel and unexpected & unaccountable proceeding.
Some may doubt the wisdom of this kind of teaching. Its good effects,
however, cannot, it is believed, but be felt. Many will reflect upon it,
perhaps when they return to their villages, and the deeper they reflect
the more sensible must they become of the considerate and benevo-
lent motives which could lead to such a step. Precepts are feeble,
where nothing but precepts are employed. And would all who have
the power, exert it, to present to the observation of this people,
examples of disinterestedness, justice, and magnanimity; or lessons of
virtue and temperance, we should witness improvements in their
moral and physical condition, which are, by many deemed impracti-
cable. The drawback is, that the Indian is not a man of moral
Prairie du Chien. 1825 Abieca 43
FRIENDLY SPEECH OF SHINGABOWOSSIN TO His BAND**
I have told you your great father, is powerful and kind. If you look
around, you will see that within a very few years he has sent his
soldiers to build forts at Green Bay, at Tipisagee, St. Peter's, &
Council Hills on the Missouri, where he feeds & clothes a great many
people. It is not a year since he established this last post, & one at
Sagana. Is not this an evidence of his strength?
When the British King, wishes any of your lands, he puts his foot
upon them, and says it is mine! He holds no treaty with you to buy it,
nor does he pay you for it.
But when your American father wants your lands, he sends some
of his civil chiefs to buy it, and to agree with you on the price of it.
Is not this an evidence of his justice?
Look at your brothers the Saganaws, the Ottoways, the Potto^
wattomies, the Menomonies & the Foxes! Do they not every year
receive large sums of money from him? This is for the lands they
Whenever your American father has sent soldiers, he has sent an
Agent to see to your wants, to feed you when you are hungry; to
clothe you when you are naked, and to give you drink when you are
thirsty. Is this not an evidence of his kind big heart?
No. 1. December 1826
Look among your brothers, who are under the American govern-
ment. Have they not plenty? You go sometimes to visit them. Have
you not seen that they have horses, & cattle, guns & traps, fine
blankets and clothes, and every thing else to make them happy?
Where do they get these things? From the Americans. You have also
begun to feel the benefit of Abieca, 45 a young friend, coming here. Is
there one person among you who can get up & say that he has ever
turned a deaf ear to you? Has he ever sent any of you hungry from
ANNAMEA GEEZHixouo 46
LITERARY MEN SHOULD RESPECT THE SABBATH
The following may be advanced as proof of the influence of the Sab-
bath on the intellectual character of man. It had been proclaimed by
a periodical opposed to the administration of Sir Robt. Peel, that his
excessive labors were impairing his health. This insinuation is replied
to in these words by the Editor of the Standard. "Sir Robt. does not
work 7 days in a week which to me is full assurance that his work
will not impair his health." Then he adds these memorable words
our experience may be taken for something for a newspaper editor's
life is no time of idleness; we hold it to be an incontravertible fact
that no man ever suffered in his health, by the hardest conscientious
labor during six days of the week But we will add for the instruc-
tion of the young & studious to whom we particularly address this
remark, that during many years observation of intellectual laborers,
we never knew a man to work 7 days in the week, who did not kill
himself & his mind.
LINES, ON COMING TO RESIDE AT SAULT STE. MARIE
Remote from all the world away away.
Where lone St. Mary's waters foam and play
And broad Superior's mountains, rising high
In pictured forms, imprint the northern sky;
Far, far from every haunt the heart holds dear,
What can engage the contemplative, here.
Long mazes past, where lakes and streams resound
The Literary Voyager
I seem to stand at earth's remotest bound.
I turn me round to ask if such scenes bless,
Such wilds, such wastes ; and Truth replies yes ! yes !
Man on himself can turn, and he shall find,
Food for the noblest gifts of heart and mind.
If cities, towns, and men, be absent
Its very loneliness and woods are dear.
The wild magnificence that marks the zone,
Gives to the mind new vigor, power and tone
Above, the clouds, with light and fleecy bound,
Deck the bright arch, & scatter gems around,
Below, the winding waters devious play,
Superior's self proud trembling on its way
In crystal torrents, that with fretful roar,
With murmur's speed along St. Mary's shore;
By day I hear these falls their tale recite,
And on my ear, they murmur all the night,
It is the diapason deep whose organ forms,
Are lightnings, thunders, winds, tornadoes, storms.
Above, around expressive vastness reigns,
And nature stalks a giant o'er the plains ;
Gems glitter from the heavens, a starry road,
Where spreads the typic footprints of a God.
To view this sight, the painted Indian stands,
And tells how giants big, once filled the lands,
And oft of heroes speaks, once killed in wars,
By necromancers were transformed to stars.
Or demi-gods, who hold divided bound,
With Monedo himself, & deals thunders round.
A poor philosopher is he, on Newton's plan,
He reasons just of what he knows of man
And nature; and e'er kindly takes
God on his side, and deems that He partakes
In all his wigwam lore & care & fondly deems
His grim old priest oft speaks his will in dreams.
Talk to this man, a Turk or a Chinese,
Are not more erudite in Heaven's decrees.
No. 1. December 1886
Or how the world began, and why & when
Kind Heaven made beasts, & birds, the world and men.
Turn we from nature to her forest child,
What see we, but the human form run wild
A man of dreams and fancies, to his hopes,
Thoughts, signs, beliefs, a world wide vistas opes.
Why burns the grave light, on yon burial height,
At midnight, it is to give his wandering spirit light.
Why dance, the auroral vapors in the skies,
They are the ghosts of his own paradise,
Who joy in realms of compensating bliss
For miseries endured, through life, in this.
On civic toils he looks as something sore
Which white-men have brought over to the shore,
And letters, and all that, but for himself his fears,
Are but for want of beavers, elks and bears;
Ah, wanderer of the woods ! if far thy steps have trod
Far from all social light & letters, truth and God,
In the lone region where thou now dost stray,
With ocean-lakes to mark the ample way.
Yet is there hope for thee, in noble cares,
That point, with heavenly faith, above the stars.
There is a sympathy that ever burns,
For the lone step that from its error turns.
Heaven is not, in its fiats to be blamed,
Nor made the Indian simply to be damned.
If far thou art, savage of the plain
Where arts and light & truth & letters reign,
Yet in that very want, a cause may seem,
That makest thou thyself, an ample theme,
Despite the lonesomeness of place and line,
And much I err, or else thou shall be mine.
THE VINE AND OAic 47
A vine was growing beside a thrifty oak, and had just reached tha^t
height at which it requires support. "Oak," said the vine, "bend your
The Literary Voyager
trunk so that you may be a support to me." "My support," replied
the oak, "is naturally yours, and you may rely on my strength to
bear you up, but I am too large and too solid to bend. Put your arms
around me, my pretty vine, and I will manfully support and cherish
you, if you have an ambition to climb, even as high as the clouds.
While I thus hold you up, you will ornament my rough trunk with
your pretty green leaves and shining scarlet berries. They will be as
frontlets to my head, and I shall stand in the forest like a glorious
warrior, with all his plumes. We were made by the Master of Life to
grow together, that by our union the weak should be made strong,
and the strong render aid to the weak."
"But I wish to grow independently," said the vine, "why cannot
you twine around me, and let me grow up straight, and not be a mere
dependant upon you!' "Nature," answered the oak, "did not so de-
sign it. It is impossible that you should grow to any height done, and
if you try it, the winds and rain, if not your own weight, will bring
you to the ground. Neither is it proper for you to run your arms
hither and yon, among the trees. The trees will begin to say "It is
not my vine it is a stranger get thee gone, I will not cherish thee."
By this time thou wilt be so entangled among the different branches,
that thou cantst not get back to the oak; and nobody will then ad-
mire thee, or pity thee."
"Ah me," said the vine, "let me escape from such a destiny;" and
with this, she twined herself around the oak, and they both grew and
flourished happily together.
The Literary Voyager
No. 8. Sault Ste. Marie December 1826
A CHIPPEWA ALLEGORY
A prophet lived near the falls of St. Mary's, for many years. He was
now an old man, and he was regarded, as one who ever lived in close
communion with the Great Spirit. He could read the clouds. He could
understand every mystic sound. There was no hard question put to
him, which he could not answer. He was a wise man. He had made
mysteries his study, till all mysteries were plain to him. He possessed
a small stature, & a thin body, legs & arms. Some thought his bones
were hollow, like a bird's, he was so light. But his eyes were black and
sparkling & his voice had a peculiar intonation. His hair was long,
and as white as snow and the older he became, the longer and whiter
He had been married, when young, and had a daughter named
Olla, whom he tenderly loved and cherished, and to whom he had
taught some of his songs & arts. Olla was the pride of her village,
modest kind and respectful, she became an example and pattern for
the village maidens. But she was taken very ill one day, in her father's
lodge & died, before any relief could be given, while, it was observed,
that a rainbow from the Falls, rested on the top of her father's lodge.
Whether it was this incident, or some early dream, that had given the
name of the Rainbow, or Hair of the Sun, is not known. Many
thought that the girl had been miraculously transferred to the skies,
& he sided with this opinion, for he had often seen her sitting &
gazing intently at the sky.
He had a little drum, the rim of which, was covered with heiro-
glyphics, and a curious stick, upon the end of which, was tied a string
of a deer's hoofs, which made a sharp noise at every stroke, and he
sang with a solemn tone:
Hear my drum, ye spirit high,
Earth & water, air and sky
Ye, to me, are common ground,
The Literary Voyager
Spirits, listen to my sound
Walking, creeping, running, flying,
Near or distant, living, dying,
Ye, are but the powers I sway,
Hearken, to my solemn lay
I compel you, hither come,
Hear my rattle hear my drum
From your highest circles come.
The bark rolls of his lodge had been lifted up, while he uttered this
incantation, & the gorgeous red and green rays of the rainbow, rested
directly on his hair. They seemed to be mingled with his long hair,
and when he put up his hands, to disentangle it, he found himself
rising by a strong attraction, and he rose up to the skies, by this light
& silky filaments.
Very long & bright silver ledges, & open green plains, were the
first things that presented themselves. And he saw that smoke which
issued from this in large sheets of blue & pink & white, from the
clouds surrounded by the globe. He was kindly received at the chief's
lodge, where a wide circle of red chairs were occupied by chiefs who
sat smoking their pipes. He saw, that at every exhalation of the smoke
there were bright little flames, and this is the cause of what we call
annung, or 'the stars.
Very soon his daughter stood before him, in a beautiful robe of
pale green. "Father," said she, "I have expected you a long time. I
told those tall & majestic chiefs yonder, that if they would untie, & let
down the silken threads of the long sashes, which bind their robes,
you could come up. But father, it is not here, as with you. We do not
want. We do not hunger; we do not die. There are no marriages here;
there are no births. We are all spirits. Our senses are high. We can
hear the slightest whisper from below; & see the smallest thing. It
seems the distance is not broader than my hand. Your drum & rattles
sound plainly & the words of your songs are instantly understood."
"There is no war, or bloodshed here. There is no hunting. The
animals come out of the woods unhunted. The sharp rocks are only
shadows. We can walk through them. Everything is pleasing, & we
are happy here. The Great Spirit, only visits us by angels. He dwells
in yonder region, surrounded by bright stars."
No. S. December 1886
"I see you have brought along, your drum & rattles. Sit down on
yonder green bank, by the crystal waters & play a while. I go to re-
port your coming, to a higher power." The music he made was of un-
usual sweetness, & when he looked, the instruments had changed into
silver. He had played but a little while then came on the waters,
stately white swans, & birds of bright plumage, & when he looked
around him, he saw droves of deer & antelopes & elks, in peaceful
Where he took his seat, he remained sitting; and this is the reason
of that bright planet, called the Evening & the Morning Star. It is only
one of the little ornaments which surround the Great Spirit, & when
it rains, in heaven, you behold those bright lights, we call Dancing
Ghosts, by white men, aurora borealis, & blazing stars.
Listener ,wouldst thou be instructed behold the deaths of the aged
prophet Miscogandic-a-ub, & his daughter Olla, and their translation
to the abodes of the Great Spirit.
WAUB OJEEG OR
THE TRADITION OF THE OUTAGAMI AND
CHIPPEWA HISTORY No. 1
The following tradition is related by Oshaguscodawaqua, 48 a female
of Chegoimegon on lake Superior, the ancient capitol of the Chip-
pewa nation. A grand daughter of the reigning chief of that place,
possessing a high opinion of the origin, bravery and position of her
tribe, with every means of learning their traditions, full credence
appears to be due, to the general incidents of her narrative. Having
at sixteen become the wife of a gentleman of information, polite man-
ners, and warm susceptibility, she was removed, at this early age to
the comforts and conveniences of a civilized dwelling a change of
life which gives the narrative a striking similarity to that of Pocha-
hontas. But, although raising a family of children, by this union, she
remained firmly attached to the traditions of her people, and contin-
ued to speak only the Indian language.
Chippewa tradition affirms, that their ancient council fire and
capitol was on the island of Chegoimegon in lake Superior. They
were governed by a chief officer, called Mujekiwis, who was, always,
the eldest son of the reigning OGIMAU, or Chief. At this place, they
The Literary Voyager
maintained their ancient mode of worshipping the Great Spirit, whom
they propitiated by hymns, prayers, and sacrifices, offered especially
to the Sun.
The chieftain's wife had long been settled in the line of the Totem
of the Reindeer, and the mark of this animal was the authoritative
sign of the ruler, wherever it was placed. Waub Ojeeg succeeded by
birth to this authority about the middle of the seventeenth century.
But his father, Ma Mongazida, did not die and give up the entire
rule, till a later period. The French supremacy had then been long
established, and rumors only began to be heard, of the coming of the
Saganooks the Algonquin name for the British. The latter were at
first distasteful to the Indians, who passionately loved the French
rule, & the French manners. Braddock's defeat in 1755, and the vari-
ous triumphs by which the French & Indians had kept back the Brit-
ish colonies, were events heard by the lake Indians, with pleasure.
The fall of Quebec in 1759, of Montreal in 1760, and of all Canada,
in a short time following, was dreadful news to the Indians. They did
not believe, what they did not like, and determined not to give up
the country without a struggle. Pontiac placed himself at the head of
their effort, and made most vigorous & bloody efforts, to repel the
Saxon race. But these efforts proved vain, & the year 1763, saw the
whole nation power prostrate, & the British flag triumphant.
Ma Mongazida, did not die, & give up his authority at Chegoime-
gon till about 1790. This event, left Waub Ojeeg the sole rulership, a
right to which he lent claim by his vigors and skill as a huntsman, &
his bravery & diplomatic talents as a warrior.
The same period saw a young gentleman from the north of Ireland,
come to the capitol of British North America, to recruit the rental of
an exhausted estate, by engaging in the half Quixotic and chivalrous
enterprize of the Fur Trade. The tale is simply told. A few years saw
the ardent son of Erin at the death bed of Ma Mongazida, and the
fast friend of his brave and talented son, Waub Ojeeg.
Centuries have elapsed since hostilities commenced between the
Chippewas and Sioux. They lived on terms of amity, so long as the
abundance of game rendered precise limits an object of little conse-
quence, and while their leaders saw no cause to apprehend that they
were, at a future day, to become rivals; and earn the hated name of
NadowasieUj or Rattlesnake in the grass.
The Sioux felt little uneasiness at the inroads made by the Chip-
No. 8. December 1886
pewas into those remote and woody borders of their extensive hunt-
ing grounds, which stretch around the head of lake Superior. They
had few inducements to penetrate far towards the north, while the
fertility and mildness of the Mississippi plains, and the facility of
procuring food operated to confine their villages to the banks of that
river. But when their new neighbors, on that quarter, began to sally
from their inhospitable woods into the plains, in quest of the larger
animals, which at certain seasons, quit the forests altogether, and
when their numbers and power began to make them formidable; it is
reasonable to conclude that a strong jealousy was created.
Hostilities once begun, there is nothing in the institutions of Indian
society, that would induce them to preserve any connected details of
its impelling causes. Nor should we feel surprized that these original
causes of enmity have been nearly forgotten, when we reflect, that
every season has been supplying fresh fuel to the flame.
Tradition represents that the Chippewa bands who first settled
themselves at Shogwoinecan, 49 or LaPointe, on lake Superior, had the
lands bestowed upon them by the Outagamis, 50 who were temporarily
fixed there; but had resolved on migrating further west. A greater
proof of the perfect amity existing between these two tribes could not,
perhaps, be given. They were, in fact, descended from a common
ethnological stock, spoke dialects of the same language, and practised
the same general customs. They were brother-tribes. Whenever, they
met, they lived together as one and the same people, and mutually
sympathized in each other's reverses, or well-being. 51
Between the Outagamis and Sioux, a good understanding existed,
which had been matured, till, it seems, mutual aid was expected to be
given to each other, in cases of emergency. Through this alliance, the
Chippewas were well received on their first arrival at LaPointe, and
for many years afterwards the Sioux regarded them as friends. Offices
of civility were exchanged, and visits and intermarriages took place;
and they tacitly acceded to the arrangement made by the Outagamis,
respecting the lands.
In process of time the intimacy, which had bound together the
Outagamis and Chippewas, during their weak and migratory state,
cooled; they no longer looked upon each other as friends, and they
soon quarrelled for the possession of a country, which they had, at
first, shared in amity.
The Outagamis, who had retired from the lake to the table lands
The Literary Voyager
intermediate between the Mississippi, lake Michigan, and lake Super-
ior, envying the increasing power and strength of the Chippewa settle-
ment at LaPointe, commenced inroads into their best hunting grounds,
depriving them of means of subsistence which had become, more im-
portant, as their numbers were augmented.
Before resenting this conduct, the Chippewa chiefs held a council,
and determined on demanding an explanation. When the messengers
employed on this mission entered the camp of the Outagamis, they
found them in council, and immediately proclaimed their errand.
They asked the Outagamis, what wrong, or injustice they had ever
done them; they declared that the lands they occupied had been
freely given their fathers by the Outagamis; and that they had made
no encroachments. They concluded by saying, that they had always
regarded each other as brothers; that they were so in reality, they
would be very sorry to shed their blood on the graves of their fore-
fathers, who had been so generous towards them. But, that if they did
not put a stop to their young men's depredations, they were deter-
mined to defend themselves, as several of their young hunters had
already been decoyed and slain.
The Outagamis answered; that they (the Chippewas) were the
aggressors; that they had wrongfully wrested the lands from their
forefathers; and that far from stopping the attempts which had been
already made, they would encourage their young men in every effort
to drive them off the land. The council broke up with this threat, and
the messengers, with difficulty, returned to their town.
Open hostilities soon commenced on either side, and although the
Sioux sided with the Outagamis, and united with them in battle, yet
the Chippewas totally defeated them in several bloody recontres;
they broke up their villages at the Flambeau and Ottowa lakes, and
compelled the remnant of the tribe to quit the sources of the Wiscon-
sin, Chippewa, and Bad rivers, and ultimately to seek shelter behind
their allies, the Sioux.
In this war the Chippewas were first brought into contact with the
Sioux, and from that period they have scarcely ever enjoyed a
moment's peace. 52
How hard to teach the heart, opprest with grief,
Amid gay, worldly scenes, to find relief;
No. 2. December 1886
And the long cherish'd bliss we had in view,
To banish from the mind where first it grew!
But Faith, in time, can sweetly soothe the soul,
And Resignation hold a mild control;
The mind may then resume a proper tone,
And calmly think on hopes forever flown.
CUSTOMS OF DISTANT NATIONS
Herodotus says, of the ancient Thracians, that "the most honorable
life with them, is a life of indolence; the most contemptible, that of
a husbandman. Their supreme delight is war and plunder."
The same remark may be made of some dozen tribes of our North
American Indians; but what is the conclusion to be drawn? Surely no
reasonable man will hence infer, that the American Indians were
originally Thracians. Yet one half of the deductions of zealous
theorists rest on no better foundations.
Coincidences have been observed in the manners and customs of
barbarous nations, situated in distant parts of the world, and living
in eras not less distant; between whom, however, there is not the
least probability that there ever existed any connection by the ties
of blood, or commerce.
Such coincidences must in fact, be deemed purely accidental; and
ought to be regarded only, as evidences of the identity of the human
TYPE OF MEXICAN CIVILIZATION
Nothing is more manifest on reading the "Conquest of Mexico," 53
than that the character and attainments of the Mexicans are exalted
far above the reality, to enhance the fame of Cortez, and give an air
of splendor to the conquest. Exact observation was not a characteristic
of that age, and dense as was the population of the Mexican prov-
inces, the numbers were undoubtedly over-rated. In the same spirit,
every stone cottage, or log dwelling was a palace, and every petty
independent chief of a band of hunters, a prince in jewelled robes.
That the Mexicans had made considerable advances towards civiliza-
tion, is unquestionably true; but that these advances were totally
The Literary Voyager
over-rated by Cortez and his interested followers and retainers, ap-
pears to us equally undeniable.
The cacique of Tempoala, being the first dignitary who paid his
respects personally to Cortez, is described as wearing a robe of cotton
flung over his naked body, enriched with various jewels and pendants,
which were also observed upon his person. In plain parlance, he wore
a cotton blanket, with ear bobs.
"Canoes" and "periogues of wood," were their usual means of con-
veyance by water. The "books" mentioned at page 100, were deer
skins, well dressed and folded up accurately, after having been painted
with hieroglyphics; and were probably very little different from the
paintings upon buffalo robes, made by the Pawnees, Osages, and other
south-western tribes of the present day.
The Mexicans, he says, at p. 93 "had rings in their ears and lips,"
which, though they were of gold, were a deformity instead of an
By the nearest route from St. Juan de Ulua to Mexico was 180
leagues. The journey was performed by Montezuma's runners, or
scouts, within seven days, to and from, being 25 to 26 leagues per day.
This excited the wonder and incredulity of the sluggish Spaniards,
who were credulous enough on other occasions. But would certainly
be considered an ordinary day's journey by our northern tribes, and
by no means a proper effort for such an extraordinary emergency.
Distance they counted by time, like our Indians. "A Sun, was a
"One of the points, continues De Solis, of his (Cortez) embassy,
and the principal motive which the king (Charles V.) had to offer his
friendship to Montezuma, was the obligation Christian princes lay
under, to oppose the errors of idolatry; and the desire he had to
instruct him in the knowledge of the truth, and to help him to get
rid of the slavery of the devil."
The first presents sent to Cortez by Montezuma, were cotton
cloths, plumes, bows, arrows, and targets, precious stones, collars of
gold, representations of birds and beasts of the same metal, a plate of
gold resembling the sun, and another of similar dimensions resembling
the moon. It was the fatal error of this unfortunate monarch to exhibit
his wealth to the Spaniards. It was precisely what they were in search
of, and the arrival of these rich presents may be seized upon, as the
date from which Cortez resolved upon the conquest.
No. 2. December 1886
Pork I love, but drinks I hate
Oh, what joy to lick a plate.
Oh, master, why did you whip me! I cannot help thinking that you
have done me injustice in the punishment inflicted, for my having
chawed up your literary papers. I confess I did not know the value
of these papers. Dog, as I am, and subject to lie at your feet, in your
office, I did not know that these papers embraced your conjugations
of Indian verbs. Besides, you know my youth and indiscretion. When
I saw you lock your door, and go to dinner, my gnawing teeth, im-
pelled me to try their use, and I seized the papers, and chewed and
tore them up, without any idea of my indiscretion, and without know-
ing what trouble it would put you to, to procure other examples.
Remember how easy it will be for you to set your big red nosed in-
terpreter, Yarns, 54 to furnish other data; and if he cannot do it,
correctly or acceptably, as I suspect, you know the favor with which
we both, are regarded at the Erin Hall, 55 where the subject of the
Indian languages can be so profitably discussed. I beg you, therefore
to excuse my ignorance, and for the future I promise you on the word
of a pretty little Pointer, not to meddle with your literary papers, of
any sort. I was originally named after the great Pontiac, and it shall
ever be my aim to imitate his noble deeds, and to bite and snarl only
at the oppressive and unjust/'
This dignified & majestic man, is a son of Naidosagee of the reigning
Crane Totem. 57 He is First chief of the band of St. Mary's, and is
one of the most respected and influential men in the Chippewa nation.
He is some six feet three inches in height and well proportioned, erect
in his carriage, and of a commanding and dignified aspect. Of a turn
of mind deliberate and thoughtful, he is at once respectful and re-
spected. He knows how to be cheerful without descending to frivolity.
A man of policy, as well as bravery, he was early sensible that the
prosperity of his nation depended upon peace, and an assiduous at-
tention to their ordinary occupations. He gave up much of his time,
in late years in attending the public councils convened under the
The Literary Voyager
authority of government to secure a permanent peace, with the tribes
with whom the Chippewas are at variance. While quite a youth, he
joined several war parties against the Sioux, although living upwards
of 400 miles from the lines. And he fought & conquered under Waub
Ojeeg, at the great battle at the Falls of the St. Croix, 58 which ter-
minated the feud forever between the Chippewas and Foxes & Sauks.
His father Naidosagee was at once the chief and the legendary
chronicler of his tribe. And with him died much of their most reliable
traditionary information. Naidosagee, was also noted for the imagi-
nary legends, allegories, tales and fables, which he related for the
amusement of the young, some traces of which will appear in these
sketches. With shrewdness enough to manage the concerns of the
band, he was a voluptuary. He married four wives, three of whom
were sisters, by whom collectively he had twenty children. Each of
the male children, in time deemed himself, a legitimate ruling chief,
and attached to himself some followers. The harmony of the band
was thus, impaired & in a measure, destroyed, and the ancient village
weakened, by migrations to new regions and its once heavy popula-
tion scattered along the waters of the basin of lake Superior & the
river St. Mary.
Shingaba Wossin gradually drew upon himself the principal notice,
and was at last looked up to, and universally acknowledged as the
first man a distinction he well merited by the qualities both of his
head and heart. His good sense enabled him to point out the proper
course to be pursued by his band, in their emergencies. And his kind-
ness, and benevolence rendered him beloved. He was always the organ
of expressing the wants of his band, and the medium through which
they received advice and aid from the officers of government.
Shingaba Wossin attended and signed the great treaty of limits at
Prairie du Chien in 1825, and it was at his suggestion that the Com-
missioners inserted a provision for calling together the body of the
Chippewa nation at Fond du Lac, at the head of lake Superior in
1826, in order formally and fully to explain the important stipula-
tions of the treaty, and procure their assent to them. In this step, he
acted like a prudent ruler, who, was sensible of the true interests of
his tribe, and at the same time, moral boldness of conduct. In attend-
ing the treaty at the head of lake Superior he sought to make pro-
vision for the half breed relatives, of the nation by granting each a
No. fl. December 1886
section of land. This measure originated entirely with him, and it was
urged on the ground, that this class of people, were in reality their
best and most constant friends, and gave them aid and succor in time
of need & necessity. He also advised his people to set apart the
thousand dollar annuity the only annuity they receive for the
purpose of a school for their children to be located at St. Mary's river.
He was not a strong advocate for school knowledge in his own fam-
ily, but remarked that some of the Chippewas might wish it, and it
would, in the end, do good. He also went to the council at Butte de
Morts in 182 7, 59 and thus by his presence and aid, completed the
settlement of the Chippewa and Indian boundaries with the Sioux,
Menomenees, Winnebagoes & Wabnokies. 60
The following replies to the historical inquiries issued by Gov. Cass
in 1822, are from the pen of John Johnston Esqr. It is to be regretted,
from his long residence in the country and intimate knowledge of
Indian history, that he had proceeded no farther, in his proposed task.
1. What is the original name of the Tribe? Ans. Ojibway. 2. What is
the present name? The same. 3. What is the meaning of the name in
English? The origin of the name lost in antiquity. 4th they are re-
lated to the Ottaways, who were the agricultural branch of the Tribe
the Ojibways and Miamies were the warrior classes. 5th This quest
can be no otherwise answered, than that they all came from one
country to the Southard and Westard of this: That a part of the na-
tion yet called Otagahmeg, or in English Otagama, who were there
precursors, are still settled near the sources of the Mississippi. 6th
Their earliest tradition is of their wars with the Otagamies, whose
country they in part possessed themselves of, and retain to this day.
7th They came from Southward, progressed to the country they now
occupy. 8th This question is answered in reply to Quest. 6 & 7. 61
There is, among the generic native languages in this part of America,
one, for which its peculiar idiom provides the above epithet, although
the more popular and limited one, of Algonquin is generally prefixed
to it. This language appears to be the parent of most of the Indian
The Literary Voyager
dialects east of the Mississippi, obscured as these dialects are, by
various appellations, and corrupted by tribal peculiarities of sound
and sense. It abounds with open vowel sounds; is very copious; and
has a measured nervous flow, something inclining to pompous, but
rather pleasing and agreeable from the frequent recurrence of liquids
and vowels. In its grammatical forms it ranks with the class of
languages, which writers on universal grammar have denominated
transpositive, from the frequency of its transformations, and the
variety of its inflections. Its substantives and verbs are wonderfully
rich in these transpositive forms, and embrace, in the course of their
grammatical evolutions, & inserted syllables, the powers and proper-
ties of all the other parts of speech, which, like the filling upon a
loom, serve to make up the complex texture of their synthetical forms.
Nevertheless it possesses adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, prepositions,
articles, and conjunctions, which are not only used (to preserve our
figure) as filling to the verbs and substantives, but are also employed
in their disjunctive and elementary forms.
Considered in all its accidents, and reciprocal changes, and they
are certainly very numerous, it is a language which would not seem to
have been involved or invented by any of the numerous nations by
which it is now spoken. Neither the state of society in which they
live, or have ever lived, so far as history extends, nor their physical
wants or moral habits, seem to demand a language so varied in its
pronominal range & combinations, and so complex in its syntax. The
greatest defect which it discloses, is the want of gender to its pro-
nouns, which are merely animate, and inanimates. He, & she, are the
same. I, and you, are visiological. Standing like an unfinished edifice
amidst barbaric wastes, there appears sufficient before the eye, to
show that it is abnormal and has never been reformed, & reduced to
regular rules of science but it wants the polish, proportions & chisel-
ling. That the language is susceptible of this polish, and capable of
bold and energetic combinations, through which philosophy might
pour the richness of thought, and genius breathe the enchantments of
poesy and eloquence, is the opinion of some, who have directed their
study, to the unravelling of its grammatical involutions, and the
comprehension of its recondite principles.
There are orientalisms probably Asiatic-isms. It seems literally
buried under the grammatical rubbish of accumulativeness. Where
No. B. December 18%6
such a people should have received such a language, is the most in-
explicable consideration which the subject presents. Can it be traced
among the fixed, or erratic hordes of northern Asia? It is useless to
look to the harsh consonantal dialects of Greenland, or to the gutteral
and impoverished tongue of the frigid Esquimaux, in which love has
no range for the expression of its emotions, or hatred for the modified
utterance of its dislike.
To THE BRAVE,
WHO FELL IN THE WAR OF 1812
On Niagara's banks, they sleep,
And in Erie's stormy deep;
Where the rapid Wabash glides,
On Ontario's warlike sides;
By the deep where Lawrence fell,
Or in lone Moravian dell;
On the field where Pike was slain,
At Sandusky at Champlain;
There the bones of heroes rest,
Honored, loved, lamented, blest.
Lake Dunmore 1815.* 2
What letters of the alphabet, form the name of a river in South
Carolina? Ans. P.D. Peedee.
What generals of Greece & the American Revolutionary army, by
a union of these names, constitute the name of an Indian tribe?
Ans. Leonidas. Oneida.
When did a wagon crush the western Indians? Ans. When Gen.
Wayne drove over them at Maumee.
THE BIRCHEN CANOE
In the region of lakes where the blue waters sleep
My beautiful fabric was built;
Light cedars supported its weight on the deep,
And its sides with the sunbeams are gilt.
The Literary Voyager
The bright leafy bark of the betula 63 tree,
A flexible sheathing provides;
And the fir's thready roots drew the parts to agree,
And bound down its high swelling sides.
No compass or gavel was used in the bark,
No art but the simplest degree ;
But the structure was finished and trim to remark,
And as light as a sylph's could be.
Its rim was with tender young roots woven round,
Like a pattern of wicker-work rare;
And it pressed on the waves with as lightsome a bound,
As a basket suspended in air.
The heavens in their brightness and glory below,
Were reflected quite plain to the view;
And it moved like a swan with as graceful a show,
My beautiful birchen canoe.
The trees on the shore as I glided along,
Seemed rushing a contrary way;
And my voyagers lightened their toil with a song,
That caused every heart to be gay.
And still as I floated by rock and by shell
My bark raised a murmur aloud;
And it danced on the waves as they rose and they fell,
Like a fay on a bright summer cloud.
I thought as I pass'd o'er the liquid expanse,
With the landscape in smiling array;
How blest I should be, if my life should advance,
Thus tranquil and sweetly away.
The skies were serene, not a cloud was in sight,
Not an angry surge beat on the shore,
And I gazed on the waters and then on the light,
Till my vision could bear it no more.
No. 2. December
Oh! long shall I think of those silver bright lakes,
And the scenes they exposed to my view;
My friends and the wishes I formed for their sakes
And my bright yellow birchen canoe.
Novr, 12th 1825
The Literary Voyager
No. 3. Sault Ste. Marie January 18%7
THE MEDA SOCIETY
The association of men in the Chippewa nation, calling themselves
Medas, has enlisted my inquiry, and the result has led to some de-
velopments, which it is the object of this communication to mention.
My attention was first especially called to this class of men, by seeing,
in the hands of one of them, a thin quadrangular tubular piece of
wood, covered with hieroglyphics, cut in the surface, and painted in
strong colors of red, black, green and other colors. Finding that there
were notations of songs, sung in this society, I requested the pos-
sesser to explain the device to me; but this, he intimated he could
not do, to any other than a member of the Meda society. I then pro-
posed myself as a member of that society agreed to observe all its
requisites, having in my service a good interpreter of the language,
requested that he might be permitted to attend, to explain the cere-
monies. I at the same time, offered my office to be used, on the con-
templated evening, for the initiation.
The evening having arrived, and the Indian Medas, being as-
sembled, with their musicians, and sacred pouches under their arms,
the door was carefully locked, and the window curtains closely put
down. The master of ceremonies, Shingwauk, came forward and
seated himself near me, laying his inscribed music-board, on my table,
and commenced his songs, agreeably to the order of the notation,
figure by figure. As these songs proceeded, he went through with the
necromantic tricks, alluded to, by the words of the song. Thus small
shells &c. were swallowed and re-gorged &c. and various transforma-
tions of legerdemain attempted. This series of operations, was some-
times adroitly performed, but generally, it required no little amount
of endurance and patience to sit through the initiation honors. I was
minute, however, in noting down the original words and translations
of each song, with its pictographic signs. There was a flow in the
song, which sometimes, reminded me of the poetic-prose of Gessner; 04
but however this was varied, the choruses, appeared to be permanent
No. 3. January 18%7
and regular, and the recurrence of certain syllables, supposed to have
a sacred or hieratic meaning, was very remarkable. The first address
to a spiritual being was made to the Deity or Great Spirit; all the
others, to supposed spiritual mirage existences hovering around. It is
purposed, in some future number to give you a detailed description of
these nocturnal ceremonies.
THE ORIGIN OF THE ROBIN
AN ORAL ALLEGORY 65
Spiritual gifts, are sought by the Chippewas through fasting. An old
man had an only son, a fine promising lad, who had come to that age
which is thought by the Chippewas to be most proper to make the
long and final fast, that is to secure through life a guardian spirit, on
whom future prosperity or adversity is to depend, and who forms and
establishes the character of the faster to great or ignoble deeds.
This old man was ambitious that his son should surpass all others
in whatever was deemed most wise and great amongst his tribe. And
to fulfil his wishes, he thought it necessary that his son must fast a
much longer time than any of those persons known for their great
power or wisdom, whose fame he envied.
He therefore directed his son to prepare with great ceremony, for
the important event. After he had been in the sweating lodge and bath
several times, he ordered him to lie down upon a clean mat, in the
little lodge expressly prepared for him, telling him, at the same time
to bear himself like a man, and that at the expiration of twelve
days, he should receive food, and the blessing of his father.
The lad carefully observed this injunction, laying with his face
covered with perfect composure, awaiting those happy visitations
which were to seal his good or ill fortune. His father visited him
every morning regularly to encourage him to perseverance, expatiat-
ing at full length on the renown and honor that would attend him
through life, if he accomplished the full term prescribed. To these ad-
monitions the boy never answered, but lay without the least sign of
unwillingness till the ninth day, when he addressed his father "My
father, my dreams are ominous of evil! May I break my fast now,
and at a more propitious time, make a new fast?" The father an-
swered "My son, you know not what you ask! If you get up now,
The Literary Voyager
all your glory will depart. Wait patiently a little longer. You have
but three days yet to accomplish what I desire. You know, it is for
your own good."
The son assented, and covering himself closer, he lay till the
eleventh day, when he repeated his request to his father. The same
answer was given him, by the old man, adding, that the next day he
would himself prepare his first meal, and bring it to him. The boy
remained silent, but lay like a skeleton. No one would have known
he was living but by the gentle heaving of his breast.
The next morning the father, elated at having gained his end, pre-
pared a repast for his son, and hastened to set it before him. On
coming to the door, he was surprized to hear his son talking to him-
self. He stooped to listen, and looking through a small aperture, was
more astonished when he beheld his son painted with vermillion on
his breast, and in the act of finishing his work by laying on the paint
as far as his hand could reach on his shoulders, saying at the same
time: "My father has ruined me, as a man; he would not listen to
my request; he will now be the loser. I shall be forever happy in my
new state, for I have been obedient to my parent; he alone will be
the sufferer; for the Spirit is a just one, though not propitious to me.
He has shown me pity, and now I must go."
At that moment the old man broke in, exclaiming, "My son! my
son! do not leave me!" But his son with the quickness of a bird had
flown up to the top of the lodge, and perched on the highest pole, a
beautiful robin red-breast. He looked down on his father with pity
beaming in his eyes, and told him, that he should always love to be
near men's dwellings, that he should always be seen happy and con-
tented by the constant cheerfulness and pleasure he would display,
that he would still cheer his father by his songs, which would be
some consolation to him for the loss of the glory he had expected;
and that, although no longer a man, he should ever be the harbinger
of peace and joy to the human race.
In the foregoing story, we recognize the pen of a female cor-
respondent, to whom we have before been indebted. A descendant
herself, by European parentage, and of the race whose manners and
customs, she depicts, in these legends, they derive additional interest
from her familiar knowledge of the Indian legendary mind, and the
No. 3. January
position she occupies between the European and aboriginal races. The
tale, she observes illustrates the Indian custom of fasting to procure
a personal spirit. The moral to be drawn from it ; is perhaps the
danger of ambition. We should not seek for unreasonable honors, nor
take unusual means to attain them.
The spirit fasted for, by the young man, proving averse to him, he
requests his father to exempt him from further fasting; and on being
denied, gives a proof of filial obedience, by persevering in abstinence.
In reward for this, the spirit, though unfavorable, partly relents, and
instead of compelling the son to pass a miserable life in the human
form, changes him to a bird, who will take a peculiar delight in
lingering around the habitations of men.
THE TRADITION OF THE OUTAGAMI AND CHIPPEWA HISTORY
A short time before the breaking out of the Outagami war, and
while the Sioux and Chippewas were on friendly terms, a Chippewa
girl was demanded in marriage by a Sioux chief of some distinction
in his nation, and she accordingly, became his wife, and bore two
sons the eldest of whom became the father of the celebrated
Sioux chief, Wabasha. These bays were in their infancy, when
hostilities began. These Outagamis and Sioux who had intermarried
with Chippewas and lived with them, precipitately retired to their
respective countries. Some of the Chippewa women went with their
husbands, others remained.
Among the latter, was the wife of the Sioux chief; and the chief
himself remained, for a short time; but animosity displaying itself in
more daring acts every day, it was deemed best that a separation
should take place.
In this step the parents of the wife concurred, and even urged the
execution of it. As they did not think their child safe in the country
of the Sioux, neither did they think their son-in-law safe in their
own; for if once he should incur the ill-will of the Chippewas, no
authority could restrain them from murdering him. The two little
boys were thought equally unsafe in the mother's hands, as the blood
of the Sioux flowed in their veins. It was therefore determined they
The Literary Voyager
should accompany the father. The relatives conducted them on their
way till they were out of danger.
The young woman remained a long time inconsolable for the loss
of her husband and children; and it was not till the lapse of several
years, that she consented to become the wife of a Chippewa of
Shogwaimican [Chequamegon], of the Totem of the Reindeer, being
of the family who had borne sway at that place from the earliest
Her first child by this second marriage was Ma Mongazida, other-
wise called Mashickeeoshe, who became a man of considerable note,
and was the principal chief in authority at that place, when the
Canadas fell into the possession of the English an event that was
distinctly remembered, from the part which the Indians of that
quarter took in the wars which led to it.
'Mongazida was therefore a half-brother of the elder Sioux chief,
the father of Wabasha; and in this manner the family became related
to the Sioux; but 'Mongazida was not himself a Sioux, as has been
'Mongazida was strongly attached to the French, who were the
first Europeans that ventured with goods into lake Superior. As a
proof of this attachment, and at the same time, of the influence which
they had acquired over the minds of the Indians, it deserves to be
mentioned that he took a decided part in the warfare which was
carried on against the English colonies, and was at Quebec with a
party of warriors, when that place surrendered to the army under
Gen. Wolfe. (Oct. 18, 1759)
He carried a short speech from Montcalm to his band, said to have
been dictated by that general after receiving his mortal wound. At
Quebec he first shook hands with the English, and he afterwards
visited Sir William Johnson at Niagara, by whom he was well re-
ceived and presented with a yellow gorget, and a broad belt of blue
wampum with white figures.
The occasion of this visit formed an era in the affairs of LaPointe,
which its inhabitants had cause to remember. For two years after the
taking of old Mackinac by the Indians, no traders had visited that
place. The convenience of this traffic was, even at that day, too highly
estimated, not to make the Indians severely feel and regret the tempo-
rary loss of it. And it was to solicit that the English would send them
No. 3. January
traders, as the French had done, that 'Mongazida visited the Super-
intendent General of Indian Affairs.
The belt and gorget were a long time preserved in the family.
Waub Ojeeg took from the former, the wampum he employed to
muster his war parties, till only a narrow strip remained. On his
death, this strip and the gorget went to his younger brother Camudwa,
who being overtaken by famine near the mouth of the Broule river,
was, with all his family, except a little girl, starved to death. With
him these testimonies were lost.
Waub Ojeeg was the second son of 'Mongazida. An incident which
occurred in his childhood is related as presaging his future eminence
as a warrior. 'Mongazida generally went to make his fall hunts on the
middle grounds towards the Sioux territory, taking with him all his
near relatives, amounting usually to 20 persons, exclusive of children.
Early one morning, while the young men were preparing for the chase,
they were startled by the report of several shots, directed towards the
lodge. As they had thought themselves in security, the first emotion
was that of surprize, but they had scarcely time to fly to their arms
when another volley was fired. This second volley wounded one man
in the thigh, and killed a dog. 'Mongazida immediately sallied out,
with his young men, and pronounced his name aloud in Sioux. He de-
manded, if Wabasha or his brother were among the assailants. The
firing instantly ceased a pause ensued, when a tall figure in a war
dress, with a profusion of feathers on his head, stepped forward and
presented his hand. It was his half-brother. The Sioux peaceably
followed their leader into the lodge, upon which they had the moment
before directed their shots. At the moment the Sioux chief entered,
where, it was necessary to stoop a little, he received a blow from a
club wielded by a small boy who had placed himself near the door
for that purpose. It was the young Waub Ojeeg. Wabasha, pleased
with this early indication of courage, took the little lad in his arms,
caressed him, and pronounced that he would become a brave man,
and prove an inveterate enemy of the Sioux. These words were re-
garded as prophetic.
The border warfare in which his father was constantly engaged,
early initiated him in the arts and preparatory ceremonies, which
pertain to the character of the warrior. While quite a youth he joined
these war parties, and gave convincing proofs of his courage. Possess-
The Literary Voyager
ing a tall and commanding person, and evincing sense, shrewdness,
and a dauntless behavior, he soon became a leader, and by his suc-
cess fixed the eyes of the Chippewa bands upon himself, as the person
destined to protect their frontiers against the inroads of a powerful
enemy. He was seven times a leader against the Outagamis [sic]
and Sioux. The eighth war party he mustered, went no farther than
the environs of Ottowa lake, where he was met by a deputation of old
men from that village, who advised him to return, saying, they wished
repose. With this request he complied. 66
SOME SINGULAR CUSTOMS OF THE CHIPPEWAS
The manners and customs of this people, have been a constant theme
of observation, since our landing here [Sault Ste. Marie], with a
military detachment, on the 6th of July 3 22. Having paid a good deal
of my attention to this subject, a few of these traits may be
There seems to be little in the animate creation, which they will
not eat, when impelled by hunger. While the cantonement was being
erected, a horse of the quarter master was wounded, and died, and
was immediately interred. Burial of meats in light arenacious soil,
appears for a brief space, rather to retain the freshness, than to
accelerate its decay. However this may be, the Indians dug it up,
and used it as food.
One of the early labors of the military was to erect a road sixty
feet wide from the fort to the noted eminence in the rear called
Wudjoowung, or Hill place by the Indians. In the progress of this
work, they cut down, or destroyed the locality, of a large species of
the sorbus Americana, or mountain ash. This tree is invested by the
Indians, with magical virtues. It is one of the species, from which
their priests make their oracular lodges.
The tree which occupied this spot, had become hollow, which gave
it further claims on their superstitions, for when the winds blew, they
fancied sounds to issue from it. When the trunk fell, by its natural
decay, they threw a branch on the site, in passing, and this pile had
much increased, at the period noted. Its destruction by the road mak-
ing party, was the innocent cause of interference with one of their
When sickness visits a lodge, a sacrifice is hung up, on the top of
a long pole, in front of it. This sacrifice is, commonly a white dog,
No. S. January 18%7
with bits of ribbon or scarlet above it. The soldiers having occasion
for tent poles, a few days after their arrival, took one of these lodge
sacrificial or Manito poles. It was soon observed by the Indians and
The superstitions of this tribe respecting mines are remarkable. It
is deemed offensive to the spirits whom they worship to disclose the
sites of mines to white men. Whether they have ever encountered un-
favorable results from such disclosures to foreigners in former ages,,
or not, is not known. Individuals have brought to me specimens of the
sulphuret and carbonate of copper, and small pieces of native copper,
but have been very careful to conceal the particular localities.
THE WHITE Fisn 69
Of ven'son let Goldsmith so wittingly sing,
A very fine haunch is a very fine thing
And Burns in his tuneful and exquisite way
The charms of a smoking Scots haggis display
But 'tis often much harder to eat than discard
And a poet may praise what a poet may want,
Less doubt there shall be 'twixt my muse and my dish,
Whilst her power I invoke, in the praise of white fish.
All friends to good living by turene or dish,
Concur in extolling this prince of a fish
So fine on a platter, so tempting a fry
So rich in agrille, and so sweet in a pie
That even before it, the red trout must fail
And that mighty bonne-bouche of the land, beavers tail.
This fish is a subject, so dainty and white,
To show in a lecture, to eat or to write
That equal's my joy, I declare on my life
To raise up my voice, or to raise up my knife
J Tis a morsel alike for the gourmand or faster
White-white as a tablet of pure alabaster
Its beauty and flavor no person can doubt,
If seen in the water, or tasted without
And all the dispute that opinion e'er makes,
Of this King of lake fishes this deer of the lakes, 70
The Literary Voyager
Regards not its choiceness, to ponder or sup
But the best mode of dressing and serving it up.
Now this is a point, where good livers may differ,
As tastes become fixed, or opinions are stiffer,
Some men prefer roasted some doat on a fry
Or extol the sweet savor of poisson blanc pie;
The nice petit pate, this palate excites
While that, on a boiled dish & bouillon delights
Some smoked & some salted, some fresh & some dried,
Prefer to all fish in our waters beside
And 'tis thought the main question if epicures look
Respects not the method so much as the cook
For, like some moral dishes that furnish a zest
Whatever is best served up, is still thought the best.
There are, in gastronomy, sages who think,
'Tis not only the prime of good victuals, but drink
That all sauces spoil it, the richer the quicker
And make it insipid except its own liquor
These move in a wild epigastric mirage
Preferring the dish a la mode de sauvage
By which it quells hunger & thirstiness both,
First eating the fish, & then drinking the broth
We leave this unsettled for palates or pens,
Who glean out of hundreds their critical tens
While drawn to the board where full many a dish,
Is slighted to taste this American fish.
The planter, who whirls through the region by stream,
The Creole who sings as he lashes his team
The merchant, the lawyer, the cit & the beau
The proud & gustative, the poor and the low,
The gay habitant the inquisitive tourist,
The chemic physician, the dinner-crast jurist
And even the ladies, the pride of the grove
Unite to extol it, and eat to approve
Full oft the sweet morsel, while poised on the knife,
No. 3. January 1827
Excites a bland smile in the blooming young wife
Nor deems she a sea fish, one moment compares,
But is thinking the while, not of fish, but of heirs.
To these, it is often a casual sweet
To dine by appointment, or taste as a treat
Not so, or in mental or physical joy
Comes the sight of this fish to the courier de bois
That wild troubadour & his joy-loving crew
Who sings as he paddles his birchen canoe
And thinks all the hardships that fall to his lot,
Are richly made up at the platter and pot
To him there's a charm neither feeble nor vague
In the mighty repast of the grand Ticamey
And oft, as he starves amid Canada snows,
On dry leather lichens & bouton de rose
He cheers up his spirits to think he shall still
Of poisson blanc bouillon once more have his fill
"Oh choice of all fishes," he sings as he goes
"Thou art sweeter to me than the Normandy rose
"And the ven'son that's stolen from the parks of the king,
"Is never by half, as delicious a thing. 71
The muse might appeal to the science of books
To picture its ichthyological looks
Show what is its family likeness or odds,
Compared to its cousins the salmons and cods
Tell where it approximates, point where it fails
By counting its fins, or dissecting its scales
Or prove by plain reasons, such proofs can be had,
Tis not toothless salmon but rather lake shad
Here too, might a fancy to descant inclined
Contemplate the lore that pertains to its kind
And bring up tradition, in fanciful strains
To prove its creation from feminine brains.
Here point out its habits, migrations & changes,
The mode of its capture, its cycles and ranges
The Literary Voyager
But let me forbear 'tis the fault of a song
A tale or a book if too learned or long.
Thus ends my discussion. More would you, I pray,
Ask Mitchell, or Harlan, Lesieur or De Hay.
July 21, 1824
THE INDIAN LANGUAGES
Contrary to assertions of our earlier inquirers, into the principles of
the Indian languages, their vocabularies appear to be based on mono-
syllabic roots. This is, at least, the case, with the Chippewa language,
in which we see the primary syllables of both nouns and verbs, con-
stituting a nucleus on which the pronominal adjuncts, are, as it were,
deposited. Thus the particle ow, in this tongue means, a human body.
Aub, the eye, nik the arm &c. &c The pronominal accidents are de-
noted by inseparable prefixes of fragments of the pronouns. Thus the
vocabulary immediately becomes acretive. The operation of this rule
is shown by the following list of forms.
His or her ob. inf.
No. 3. January
Here the root, in each case, is a monosyllable, and the first, second
and third persons singular, a dyssyllable. When the object is plural,
the word becomes trysyllable.
AN ETYMOLOGICAL LUCUBRATION
The subject of Indian etymologies, has occupied some of the brightest
minds in the land. I cannot aspire to be very bright, but at the same
time, think it may not be uninteresting to advance something on the
subject. Writers and travellers have puzzled their ingenuity to learn
the true meaning of this word. Some write it, with an 0, as if it were
a tribe of O'Neil's, or O'Donnels. Some put the letter y, to the final a,
while all the modern writers insist that the true orthography is Ojib-
way. This may be food for the learned, who are often wrong, and dine
their fancies on very slender food. To me, it is a gratification to find,
that this tribe has not felt above drawing some of its names from our
own noble English language. Thus it is easy enough to perceive that
the first syllable Chip, is a plain derivative from our vocabulary, as if
they had been thought as light as chips. By adding the term away to
this, this idea is still further strenthened as if their lives, were at all
times to be thrown away like chips. The moralist & etymologist must
coincide in this conclusion at any rate, I am truly yours
William Word Catcher. 72
The Literary Voyager
No. 4. Sauit Ste. Marie January lth 1827
Our village was yesterday (llth.) thrown into commotion by the
thrilling cry of the "Express"! The mistake, however, was soon cor-
rected, with no other injury, that we can learn, but a twing of severe
mental disappointment to the lovers of newspapers, and the expec-
tants of letters. But e'n a false alarm, some good ordains. It stirs the
stagnant hope within our veins. Order was soon restored, the sick who
had hobbled to their windows to feast their eyes on the mail bag,
quietly returned to their chairs, the pedestrians soon recovered from
the slight fatigue of a walk to meet the fancied expressman; and
those whom such experience in matters of this sort had tempered in
some degree, to the privations of the post, made strong exertions to
regain that state of intellectual quiescence, which is recommended as
the best antidote to the pains of expectancy. It is feared, however,
that the shock has been too violent, to permit a perfect recomposure
under several days. 73
I am an Indian, and although I do not pretend to the knowledge of
politeness, I mean that sort which regards domestic manners, yet I
believe there is a native politeness existing, in some measure, in every
human breast; and that an Indian feels it, and exercises it, as well as
the most refined and civilized amongst the whites. For instance,
amongst my people, no one would ever think of snatching anything
out of another's hand, unless he were angry. But we take care, at
social meetings and feasts, &c. never to appear angry, even if we do
I believe, as far as my knowledge of your customs go, you likewise
consider such conduct vulgarity and rudeness. Now sir, I beg you will
give me your opinion, and tell me if I am right or wrong, & by so
doing you will greatly oblige
R. A Native 74
No. 4. January 12tti
THE CHOICE 75
ADDRESSED TO Miss J. J.
A sweet retiring simple, modest mein
Not shunning & not seeking to be seen
A taste in dress & each domestic care
Neat but not gaudy, pleasing without glare
Such have I often wished "heavens last best gift," should be,
Such have I oft, with joy, remarked in thee.
An even temper, mild, endearing kind,
A sound discreet and regulated mind
Improved by reading, by reflection formed
By reason guided, by religion warmed
This have I often prayed "heavens last best gift" to be
This have I oft, with joy, remarked in thee.
Benevolent to all, to soothe or cure
But a firm friend to all the neighboring poor
The poor in worldly goods, or bon ton merit
The sunk in sickness & the bow'd in spirit
This have I often hoped "heavens last best gift" to be
This have I oft, with joy, remarked in thee.
Possessing spirit, yet a gentle creature,
Lover of quiet & the charms of nature
With no vain rage to simper, glare or roam
Pleas 'd if abroad, but mostly pleased at home,
This have I fondly hoped "heavens last best gift" to be
This have I oft, admired, sweet maid, in thee.
In person comely, rather than renowned,
In books conversant, rather than profound,
With too much sense to slight domestic duty
Or sigh to shine a wit, or flaunt a beauty
This have I fondly wished, "heavens last best gift" to be
Such have I seen thee oft, &, often hope to see,
The Literary Voyager
In virtue principled, in love sincere,
In manners guarded, in expression clear
Blind to all others in a just degree
But fixed, devoted, loving only me
This have I ever hoped "heavens last best gift" would be
This have I sought, and heaven blest found in thee.
Thee, in whose gentle manners, polished mind,
Grace, sweetness, taste, benevolence are joined
Sense to engage, a naivette to admire
Candor to please, & love itself to fire
Thee, have I fondly hoped, "heavens last best gift" to me
And all my hopes of bliss are hopes of thee.
Cunning, active, full of bravery,
Hating av'rice, toil, and slavery,
Iron-hearted in their daring,
Prizing valor, and way-faring,
Prone to give, in cot or waste,
Ever happy at the feast,
Who shall say, they lack the merit,
All may seek but few inherit.
THE TRADITION OF THE OUTAGAMI
AND CHIPPEWA WAR
He had received three wounds in battle. One, in his thigh, another in
his right shoulder, and a third in his side and breast, being a glancing
shot. His war parties consisted of volunteers, raised in the different
villages on the shores of the lake, to each of which he sent tobacco
and wampum. His first war party consisted of 40 men, and his largest
mustered three hundred.
This war party was made up of warriors from Shogwoimican, Fond
No. 4. January 12th 1827
du Lac, Ontonagan, Keweena bay, Grand Island, and Sault Ste. Marie.
They assembled at LaPointe, and danced the war dance on the shores
of the lake between LaPointe and Bad river. They went up Bad river,
and crossed a portage to a tributary of the St. Croix, called Nama-
cagon. From the time they struck this river until they discovered the
enemy, they passed six nights.
They went but a short distance each day, moving with great
caution, and had always scouts ahead. On the evening of the seventh
day the scouts discovered a large body of Outagamis and Sioux.
They were encamped at the lower end of a portage around a fall, or
rapid. The four Chippewa scouts who had made this discovery, did not
however get off undiscovered themselves. The Foxes being on the
alert, fired on them. A skirmish ensued. The White Fisher arrived
with his whole force in season, and a bloody battle was fought, in
which the allied Foxes and Sioux were defeated with the loss of
nearly every man. They fought however with bravery against superior
numbers; but the Chippewas had extended themselves in a circle
across the small peninsula of the portage, and escape was next to
This great battle decided the long struggle between the Chippewas
and Outagamis; and the latter have never ventured to renew the
contest. It also had the effect to raise the fame of Waub Ojeeg, to its
climax, and he was from this time regarded as the head of the nation.
His war songs were repeated in every village, and some of them are
yet remembered. The lofty sentiments and the unconquerable spirit
which they breathed, have seldom been surpassed. The following
beautiful versification of one of these songs, from the pen of Mr.
[John] Johnston, preserves the prominent ideas operating upon the
mind of the warrior under circumstances of a temporary discomfiture.
On that day when our heroes lay low lay low,
On that day when our heroes lay low;
I fought by their side, and thought ere I died,
Just vengeance to take on the foe the foe,
Just vengeance to take on the foe.
The Literary Voyager
On that day when our Chieftains lay dead lay dead,
On that day when our chieftains lay dead,
I fought hand to hand, at the head of my band,
And here on my breast have I bled have I bled,
And here on my breast have I bled.
Our chiefs shall return no more no more,
Our chiefs shall return no more,
Nor their brothers of war, who can show scar for scar,
Like women their fates shall deplore deplore,
Like women their fates shall deplore.
Five winters in hunting we'll spend we'll spend,
Five winters in hunting we'll spend,
Till our youth grown to men, we'll to war lead again,
And our days like our fathers we'll end we'll end,
And our days like our fathers we'll end.
The carrying on of the Sioux war, did not withdraw the attention
of the White Fisher, from the chase. His war excursions were gen-
erally made in the leisure of spring and summer. His followers were
hastily assembled, and the whole expedition was generally terminated
in a few weeks.
Large bodies of Indians can seldom be kept long together. Were it
possible for the Indians to submit to the necessary restraints for a
great length of time, the difficulty of subsistence must always have
opposed the most serious obstacle to long campaigns. In fact, they
generally lived upon very little, submitted to fatigues and privations
of every kind without a murmur, and when success had crowned their
efforts, they eagerly sought refreshment and repose in the security of
their villages. Then, as now, the whole efficacy of a war party, con-
sisted as much in the expedition with which it could be mustered,
marched and dispersed, as in the valor they displayed before the
After the leaves have begun to fall, and during the whole winter
No. 4. January lth 1887
and early part of spring, seasons the most valuable for hunting, no
war party was ever conducted. The severity of the climate, and the
facility with which scouting parties may track each other on the
snow, forbid all attempts of the kind. And hence it is, that the care
and business of war, scarcely, ever interrupted the pursuits of the
chase. Waub Ojeeg was, in fact as much noted for his skill as a
hunter, as for his prowess and daring as a warrior.
His hunting grounds extended along the shores of lake Superior,
from the Montreal river to the Broule of Fond du Lac a district
abounding in moose, bear, beaver, marten and muskrat. Besides these,
the mink, lynx, and smaller furs were also taken, and the woodlands
stretching east of the Mississippi plains afforded the Virginia deer,
during certain seasons. A more favorable position for the employment
of hunting could hardly have been selected; and nothing equal to it,
existed along the entire borders of the lake. In addition to this, the
climate was favorable, that curve of the lake including Fond du Lac
extending farthest south and west, and approaching nearest to the
skirts of the Mississippi valley. The LaPointe Indians were able to
raise corn, beans and pumpkins, articles which were annually culti-
vated in their gardens. The waters of that part of the lake also pro-
duced fish of various kinds, particularly white fish, trout and sturgeon.
Superadded to these advantages, the entrance of three principal
rivers into the lake near that point, together with numerous smaller
ones, presented so many avenues, which like radii, penetrated the
interior, and opened channels of approach, enjoyed by no other spot
on the southern coast of the lake. That the original settlement of the
Chippewas at that place, had been determined by observing these
advantages can not be doubted, and it may be regarded as the prin-
cipal cause of its soon becoming one of the most flourishing and
populous parts of the Chippewa territories. For we find, that so late
as 1790, this was the great mart of the Indian trade on the southern
shores of lake Superior, where the Mackinac traders annually resorted
to exchange their goods for the valuable furs of those shores.
A consideration of the causes which have led to the dispersion of the
LaPointe Indians into the department of lac de Flambeau, Folle
Avoine & c . and the consequent decline of the parent settlement, would
carry us into portions of history connected with the lives of cotempo-
rary chiefs, and lead to the development of principles which have
operated in all parts of the Indian country.
The Literary Voyager
The amount of furs and skins usually taken by Waub Ojeeg during
the year, fell little short of four Indian packs, averaging probably,
sixty pounds each. Of this quantity, about one pack and a half con-
sisted of beaver, one of bear, the remainder otter, marten, muskrat,
and other small furs; worth, estimating within bounds, $360. With
this sum he amply clothed himself and family, purchased arms,
ammunition, traps, axes and knives, and had usually a sum left, which
he appropriated to silver ornaments, vermillion and other extra, and
As a hunter he was expert, and diligent, guarding with jealousy his
rights to hunt in certain parts of the country, and esteeming the
intrusion of others a trespass which he on one occasion in particular,
punished in an exemplary manner. In his sales he evinced method and
He had attained nearly the heighth of his reputation before he
married, which was not till he had reached nearly the age of thirty;
and he then married a widow, with whom, however, he lived but two
years, and had a son. He then married a girl of fourteen of the Totem
of the Bear, by whom he had six children.
In his domestic habits he was affectionate and forbearing. When
the hunting season was over, he could never bear to be idle, and
employed those moments in adding to the comforts and conveniences
of his lodge; thus uniting qualities of mind, which have been sup-
posed incompatible with the hunter state. His industry proceeded
from forecast, added to a strong sense of obligation to his family. His
views, were enlightened, compared with the mass of Indians who
surrounded him. He saw the true situation, not only of his relatives,
but of the whole nation; and he resolved to use all his influence to
rouse them to a true sense of it. With this view he admonished them
to be active and diligent. To hunt well, and to fight well, were the
cardinal maxims of his life, upon which he believed the happiness and
independence of the nation to depend.
He possessed respectable powers as an orator, and he frequently
addressed his people during those short seasons of leisure and festivity,
which always succeed the close of the hunting seasons. To a ready
flow of words, he united the all-powerful persuasive of personal fame.
He possessed a stature of 6 feet 6 inches in height, with a keen search-
ing black eye, and a countenance and bearing commanding high
No. 4. January 18th 1827
respect. His movements were lofty and dignified; he swayed as much
by his air and manner as by his words. Custom had rendered his
decisions a law; and although all the government exercised by
Chippewa chiefs, is that of mere opinion, he ruled his village with a
power almost absolute.
Such is the effect of great personal prowess, and a reputation for
bravery and sagacity, among savage nations. The whole power and
destiny of such nations hinges upon the private character of a few
great men, who start up, at long intervals, rouse and direct the
energies of their followers to a few favorite points, and when they
have succeeded in moulding them to purposes of activity and com-
bined action and feeling, die, and leave them to fall back into their
former state of apathy and indolence. Where nothing is written,
nothing is long remembered with accuracy; and hence, in a few years,
their very history is lost, or involved in the inextricable labyrinth of
Waub Ojeeg had fixed his residence permanently at LaPointe,
upon the main. His lodge was of an oblong shape, about 60 feet long,
formed of posts fixed in the ground, and covered with the rind of the
betula. From the centre, rose a stout post, reaching above the roof
some feet on the top of which was the carved figure of an owl, so
placed as to turn with the wind, and serve the purposes of a weather-
cock. When he went to his wintering ground, this lodge was shut up,
and re-occupied again on his return. During the short excursions,
made in spring and summer, the family retained possession of the
In one of these excursions, he had a most singular contest with a
moose. He went out early one morning, to make marten traps; and
had set about forty, and was returning, when he encountered a large
animal of this species in his path, who evinced a disposition to attack
him. As he was armed with only a small hatchet and knife, he tried
to avoid him. But the moose came towards him in a furious manner.
He took shelter behind a tree, shifting his place from tree to tree, as
the enraged animal pressed upon him. At length as he fled, he picked
up a pole, and quickly untying his moccasin strings, tied his knife to
the end of it. He then placed himself in a favorable position behind a
tree, and when the moose came up, stabbed him several times in the
throat and breast. At length the animal fell. He then cut out the
The Literary Voyager
tongue as a trophy of victory, and returning to his lodge, related, to
his family, the singular encounter he had had, and where they would
find the animal. When they came to the spot, they found the snow
trampled down in a wide circle, sprinkled with blood, and resembling
a field of battle. The animal proved to be one of uncommon size. 78
A frame slender in proportion to his extraordinary height, together
with great exposure of his person in his numerous war excursions,
brought on a premature decay. He lingered several years with a
pulmonary complaint, attended with spitting of blood. He lived long
enough to see his eldest daughter and child united to Mr. Johnston,
and died in 1793 aged about 45 years.
THE INDIAN COQUETTE
A CHIPPEWA LEGEND
There was a village full of Indians, and a noted belle or muh-muh
daw go qua was living there. A noted beau or muh muh daw goj
ninnie was there also. He and another young man went to court this
young woman, and laid down beside her, when she scratched the face
of the handsome beau. He went home and would not rise till the fam-
ily prepared to depart, and he would not then arise. They then left
him, as he felt ashamed to be seen even by his own relations. It was
winter, and the young man, his rival, who was his cousin, tried all he
could to persuade him to go with the family, for it was now winter,
but to no purpose, till the whole village had decamped and had gone
away. He then rose and gathered all the bits of clothing, and orna-
ments of beads and other things, that had been left. He then made
a coat and leggins of the same, nicely trimmed with the beads, and
the suit was fine and complete. After making a pair of moccasins,
nicely trimmed, he also made a bow and arrows. He then collected the
dirt of the village, and filled the garments he had made, so as to ap-
pear as a man, and put the bow and arrows in its hands, and it came
to life. He then desired the dirt image to follow him to the camp of
those who had left him, who thinking him dead by this time, were
surprized to see him. One of the neighbors took in the dirt-man and
entertained him. The belle saw them come and immediately fell in
love with him. The family that took him in made a large fire to
No. 4. January 12th 1827
warm him, as it was winter. The image said to one of the children, "sit
between me and the fire, it is too hot," and the child did so, but all
smelt the dirt. Some said, "some one has trod on, and brought in
dirt." The master of the family said to the child sitting in front of
the guest, "get away from before our guest, you keep the heat from
him." The boy answered saying, "he told me to sit between him and
the fire." In the meantime, the belle wished the stranger would visit
her. The image went to his master, and they went out to different
lodges, the image going as directed to the belle's. Towards morning,
the image said to the young woman (as he had succeeded) "I must
now go away," but she said, "I will go with you." He said "it is too
far." She answered, "it is not so far but that I can go with you." He
first went to the lodge where he was entertained, and then to his
master, and told him of all that had happened, and that he was going
off with her. The young man thought it a pity she had treated him
so, and how sadly she would be punished. They went off, she follow-
ing behind. He left her a great way behind, but she continued to
follow him. When the sun rose high, she found one of his mittens and
picked it up, but to her astonishment, found it full of dirt. She, how-
ever took it and wiped it, and going on further, she found the other
mitten in the same condition. She thought, "fie! ! why does he do so,"
thinking he dirtied in them. She kept finding different articles of his
dress, on the way all day, in the same condition. He kept ahead of
her till towards evening, when the snow was like water, having melted
by the heat of the day. No signs of her husband appearing, after
having collected all the cloths that held him together, she began to
cry, not knowing where to go, as their track was lost, on account of
the snow's melting. She kept crying Moowis has led me astray, and
she kept singing and crying Moowis nin ge won e win ig, ne won e
Gov. CASS' REPOSE OF CHARACTER
Physical peril does not appear to affect this gentleman. I saw him
once exposed to imminent peril, in a canoe in the middle of lake Erie.
I was sitting beside him. We had left the Detroit river, with a brisk
breeze. It was on the 4th July 1821. The wind rose almost imper-
The Literary Voyager
ceptibly, to a gale, before which we were driven some thirty miles. It
was impossible to make the shore, from the impossibility of turning
the vessel, without swamping it. The waves rolled behind us in
glorious swells, whose bright and pearly crests broke behind us, and
around us, with a murmuring noise, falling like showers of scattered
crystals. We were literally driven on "the wings of the wind." At
length the crowning wave of one of those long series, which had been
chasing us, broke high above our heads and poured in torrents over
us, and rolled down our breasts, filling the canoe. I thought all was
over, and that we were inevitably destined for the green weeds and
smooth pebbles at the bottom of the lake. I looked at Gen. Cass. His
eye and countenance denoted a sense of danger, without the slightest
disturbance. Not a word was uttered by him or me. 80 I had myself a
trustful spirit, and saw him with quite as much. His was a repose that
spoke volumes. The next series of waves lifted us on, on our perilous
way, as if by giant jerks, the men busying themselves in bailing, as.
if all they had to do, must be done quickly; and before another
royal series of the angry element, gathered up its strength, to finish us,
as if with the stroke of a whale in the Pacific, we passed into the
sheltering jaws of the outer capes of Maumee bay, and were safe.
To His EXCELLENCY
L.over of letters mild and able,
E.ver zealous, prompt and stable,
W.ithout pomp, or vain parade,
Ln the camp, the court, the shade,
S.tudious, cautious, penetrating,
C.andid, courteous, wit-creating,
A.ctive, quick, by word or brow,
S.ure to plan, defend, avow,
S.uch was Hampden, such art Thou.
WONDERS OF ANCIENT ART
We are informed in Bailey's Dictionary, 82 that glass was first in-
vented in Sidon. The first maker of it in Rome, was in the reign of
No. 4. January 12th 1887
Tiberius. An artist of this time, having made vessels of such a temper,
that being cast on the ground, they did not break, but only bruise.
These indentations, the maker smoothed with a hammer, and
straightened before the Emperor; but this ruler, is said to have put
him to death, for fear of glass should detract from the use of gold or
silver. This relation has amused, for nearly eighteen centuries. That
some fictitious production was exhibited to Tiberius, which was
called Vitrum or glass, is probable. That it was glass, in a proper
sense, that is, fused silex and alkali, in a transparent form, is con-
tradicted by all the principles of chemistry. Malleability is one of
the characteristics of metals, and the utmost we can grant is, that
some ancient artist had found the secret of taking away the opacity
of metal. This can be readily done, by fusing its oxides with silex,
but the result is, a brittle body.
The same authority tells us, that in 1610, the Sophy emperor of
Persia, sent the King of Spain, six glasses that were made malleable.
In the year 1662, glass was first brought into England, by Renault, a
foreign monk or bishop. Dr. Johnson adopts this chronology, in the
end of his dictionary.
A Vitreologist 83
A DEFECT IN MAKING INDIAN TREATIES
The cession of lands from Indians, should invariably be made by a
map drawn by them & appended to the original treaty. Countries are
sometimes bartered by a wave of the hand. A bad or careless inter-
preter, who in explaining a written treaty, points his finger wrong in
defining a boundary, leads a tribe to suppose they have not ceded,
accessory to this wave of the hand. Millions of acres are thus, some-
times, put in dispute. Treaties are made to explain treaties, & pur-
chases to cover purchases. All resulting from a bad interpreter, or the
want of a ms. or sketch map.
Say, what is glory? Glory to Nimiad's eye,
Was to up-rear a tower to the sky.
The son of Phillip, placed it in renowns,
Of slaughtering armies, To returning towns
To Ceasar, twas the glitter, & the bloom,
The Literary Voyager
That smote the giant commonwealth of Rome.
Nor judged on one just empereal Charlemagne
Who placed it, in a despot's power to reign.
Was Charles' rule, a rule of softer guise?
On Frederick's, who made red the Pougcas skies
Nay had Napoleon, pure hopes and fears?
In rattling kingdoms about Europe's care.
The Literary Voyager
No. 5. Saiilt Ste. Marie January
NEWS, AT HOME & ABROAD
The express reached us on the evening of the 19th instant, bringing
Detroit papers to Dec. 5th, New York to Novr. 17th and Washington
to Novr. 21st. Presuming our male readers have taken care to supply
themselves with the current news, we shall briefly enumerate the lead-
ing topics of intelligence for the benefit of the ladies.
The only item of much interest in the Detroit papers, is the speech
of His Excellency Governor Cass, to the legislative council a sound,
practical address, suited to the situation and prospects of the terri-
tory. 84 In New York, Gov. [DeWitt] Clinton is reelected by a small
majority; but the anti-Clintonian party has triumphed in the election
of Gen. [Nathaniel] Pitcher as Lieutenant Governor, and in securing
a majority in the Senate and Assembly. From Washington we learn,
that the (then) approaching session of Congress was anticipated with
the same intense interest, that has marked the last half dozen sessions
of that body.
Casting our eyes beyond the Atlantic, we see the farce of the "Holy
Alliance," playing off very much in the old way. In this farce, certain
monarchs have undertaken to act the part of public performers. The
people, who have been all along hoodwinked, are expected to dance,
so long as the monarchs play, and to pay the piper into the bargain.
If any are bold enough to pull off the bandage, to express a dislike to
the tune, or to stop dancing, they are knocked on the head with the
John Bull, who was never a good dancer, sat down some years ago ;
although he continued to pay the piper for others, who danced in his
place. Portugal lately imitated John's example, as Spain had unsuc-
cessfully done twice before. But this step has thrown the whole
orchestra into discord. Nothing but jarring and confusion is heard. It
is feared if this obstinacy on the part of Portugal goes unpunished, the
entire "troupe" will follow the example.
What adds to the embarrassment, is the sudden incursion of certain
The Literary Voyager
Turkish and Persian, performers, who threaten to dance a saraband of
their own; and that too, on the very borders of Europe. It is sup-
posed this last occurrence, will bring out the best players on the
continent, and lead to a denouement of the Piece. The emperor of
Austria, it is thought, will try to restore harmony by a few airs on the
German flute; Charles Xth. will give divers flourishes on the French
horn; while Nicholas, makes the air resound with the terrible knout.
But it is shrewdly suspected that John Bull will insist on adding the
music of the drum and fife.
Seriously, we believe posterity will wonder, how long state tricks
are capable of arresting the march of the human intellect; and blind-
ing nations to the rights and enjoyments which the Creator has spread
Dance nations now, & if ye miss the tread,
Nomportej Napoleon the Great is Dead.
Language is the tell tale of history. I have been a humble inquirer
after the principles of the Chippewa language and offer some remarks,
which I think, deserve notice. It was observed, of the Carib language,
when first noticed, that it exhibited a sexual feature, that is, that it
contained a set of masculine and feminine nouns, verbs and expres-
sions, limited to the sexes. Something of this sort exists in a limited
degree, in the Chippewa. This characteristic vocabulary may be
judged of, by the following examples.
nouns male nouns female
My friend. Nejee. Nendongwa.
My uncle. Ni mi sho mai.by the f . side. Nezhisa by the m. side
My aunt. Nizigus " Neenwisha "
Behold. Tyau! Nyau!
Consonantal peculiarities. Some of the consonants which the
Chippewas do not ordinarily employ, in their vocabulary, acquire a
magical value in the mouths of story tellers, medas, and jossakeeds.
The letter 1. and the combination of wh. fall under this denomination.
Examples of both occur in the hieratic chorus, wha-ld-ld-da. In the
magical legend of Mishosha, the term Pol, uttered after that of canoe,
No. 5. January
is an imperative charm commanding the canoe to assume its magical
powers, by rushing, without paddles, through the water.
The letters B. and P. are often interchangeable, and often denote
idiomatic precision. Thus Poz is the word to embark; Boz he, or she
embarks. Poziwug, they embark.
Ba-zhick, signifies one; but the duplication of the first syllable,
changing, at the same time, b to p, renders the sense, united, solid,
unseparated. Thus the horse is called the animal with solid, or unsplit
Maja is simply the indicative of the verb to go, but by its duplica-
tion with stress of voice and accent, the term thus formed (maja-
maja) is equivalent to may good luck attend you, or adieu.
The termination ego distinguishes the passive, from the active voice.
The duplication of an adjective, before a noun, gives it a superla-
tive, or highly intensified sense. Thus gitchi-gitchi is, superlatively
great. Ish, signifies man, in the term un- ish- in- a- ba; but ish ap-
pears to be used to call attention to something about to be said, and
is perhaps analogous to the terms Sir, man or Mister.
The fact mentioned by our correspondent "A native," is worthy of
attention. There are, clearly degrees of purity in the spoken language,
according to the degree of refinement of living and manners of the
people. The chief orators pride themselves on using the best language;
they never violate the class of nouns; and their example becomes a
standard to the young, while those families, in which there is a mix-
ture of European blood, pique themselves on their superior knowledge
of both the vocabulary and grammar.
The Chippewa has the peculiarity of making every inanimate object
at the will of the speaker, animate. By this process, trees, rocks, in
short every feature of the country is invested with hearing, sight and
animation. Wilds and forests no longer remain desolate and lone-
some, when every object, around, above and below, is a person.
INCLUSIVENESS OF INDIAN TRADITIONS
No historical value can be found on many tribal traditions of more
than three centuries standing. The Indian tribes constituting one of
the language variants of mankind, have a tradition of the creation &
The Literary Voyager
a general deluge. These are generally expressed under symbolic
forms, or clothed with allegories. From the period of the world's
origin, they drop down through centuries, to the events of yesterday.
To reach integrals, & show the development of tribes, from names,
we must appeal to language, physical traits, the remains of art, and
OR THE MAGICIAN AND His DAUGHTERS
A CHIPPEWA TALE OR LEGEND SS
In an early age of the world, when there were fewer inhabitants in
the earth than there now are, there lived an Indian, who had a wife
and two children, in a remote situation. Buried in the solitude of the
forest, it was not often that he saw any one, out of the circle of his
own family. Such a situation seemed favorable for his pursuits; and
his life passed on in uninterrupted happiness, till he discovered a
wanton disposition in his wife.
This woman secretly cherished a passion for a young man whom
she accidentally met in the woods, and she lost no opportunity of
courting his approaches. She even planned the death of her husband,
who, she justly concluded, would put her to death, should he discover
her infidelity. But this design was frustrated by the alertness of the
husband, who having cause to suspect her, determined to watch nar-
rowly, to ascertain the truth, before he should come to a determina-
tion how to act. He followed her silently one day, at a distance, and
hid himself behind a tree. He soon beheld a tall, handsome man ap-
proach his wife, and lead her away.
He was now convinced of her crime, and thought of killing her, the
moment she returned. In the meantime he went home, and pondered
on his situation. At last he came to the determination of leaving her
forever, thinking that her own conscience would in the end, punish
her sufficiently; and relying on her maternal feelings, to take care of
the two boys, whom he determined to leave behind.
When the wife returned, she was disappointed in not finding her
husband, having concerted a plan to dispatch him. When she saw that
day after day passed, and he did not return she at last guessed the
true cause of his absence. She then returned to her paramour, leaving
No. 5. January 1887
the two helpless boys behind, telling them that she was going a short
distance, and would return; but determined never to see them more.
The children thus abandoned, soon made way with the food that
was left in the lodge, and were compelled to quit it, in search of more.
The eldest boy possessed much intrepidity, as well as great tender-
ness for his little brother, frequently carrying him when he became
weary, and gathering all the wild fruit he saw. Thus they went deeper
into the forest, soon losing all traces of their former habitation, till
they were completely lost in the labyrinths of the wilderness.
The elder boy fortunately had a knife, with which he made a bow
and arrows, and was thus enabled to kill a few birds for himself and
brother. In this way they lived some time, still pressing on, they knew
not whither. At last they saw an opening through the woods, and
were shortly after delighted to find themselves on the borders of a
broad lake. Here the elder boy busied himself in picking the seed
pods of the wild rose. In the meanwhile the younger, amused him-
self by shooting some arrows into the sand, one of which, happened
to fall into the lake. The elder brother, not willing to lose his time in
making another, waded into the water to reach it. Just as he was
about to grasp the arrow, a canoe passed by him with the rapidity of
lightning. An old man, sitting in the centre, seized the affrighted
youth, and placed him in the canoe. In vain the boy addressed him.
"My grandfather" (a term of respect for old people) "pray take my
little brother also. Alone, I cannot go with you; he will starve if I
leave him." The old magician (for such was his real character)
laughed at him. Then giving his canoe a slap, and commanding it to
go, it glided through the water with inconceivable swiftness. In a
few minutes they reached the habitation of Mishosha, standing on an
island in the centre of the lake. Here he lived, with his two daughters,
the terror of all the surrounding country.
Leading the young man up to the lodge "Here my eldest daughter,"
said he, "I have brought a young man who shall become your hus-
band." The youth saw surprize depicted in the countenance of the
daughter, but she made no reply, seeming thereby to acquiesce in the
commands of her father. In the evening he overheard the daughters
in conversation. "There again!" said the elder daughter, "our father
has brought another victim, under the pretence of giving me a hus-
band. When will his enmity to the human race cease; or when shall
The Literary Voyager
we be spared witnessing such scenes of vice and wickedness, as we
are daily compelled to behold."
When the old magician was asleep, the youth told the elder daugh-
ter, how he had been carried off, and compelled to leave his helpless
brother on the shore. She told him to get up and take her father's
canoe, and using the charm he had observed, it would carry him
quickly to his brother. That he could carry him food, prepare a lodge
for him, and return by morning. He did in every thing as he had been
directed, and after providing for the subsistence of his brother, told
him that in a short time he should come for him. Then returning to
the enchanted island, resumed his place in the lodge before the
magician awoke. Once during the night Mishosha awoke, and not
seeing his son in law, asked his eldest daughter what had become of
him. She replied that he had merely stepped out, and would be back
soon. This satisfied him. In the morning, finding the young man in
the lodge, his suspicions were completely lulled. "I see, my daughter,
you have told me the truth."
As soon as the sun rose, Mishosha thus addressed the young man.
"Come, my son, I have a mind to gather gulls eggs. I am acquainted
with an island where there are great quantities; and I wish your aid
in gathering them." The young man, saw no reasonable excuse, and
getting into the canoe, the magician gave it a slap, and bidding it go,
in an instant they were at the island. They found the shore covered
with gulls eggs, and the island surrounded with birds of this kind.
"Go, my son," said the old man, "and gather them, while I remain
in the canoe." But the young man was no sooner ashore than
Mishosha pushed his canoe a little from land and exclaimed: "Listen
ye gulls! you have long expected something from me. I now give you
an offering. Fly down, and devour him." Then striking his canoe, left
the young man to his fate.
The birds immediately came in clouds around their victim, darken-
ing all the air with their numbers. But the youth, seizing the first
that came near him, and drawing his knife, cut off its head, and im-
mediately skinning the bird, hung the feathers as a trophy on his
breast. "Thus," he exclaimed, "will I treat every one of you who
approaches me. Forbear, therefore, and listen to my words. It is not
for you to eat human food. You have been given by the Great Spirit
as food for man. Neither is it in the power of that old magician to do
No. 5. January 1827
you any good. Take me on your beaks and carry me to his lodge, and
you shall see that I am not ungrateful."
The gulls obeyed, collecting in a cloud for him to rest upon, and
quickly flew to the lodge, where they arrived before the magician. The
daughters were surprized at his return, but Mishosha conducted as if
nothing extraordinary had taken place.
On the following day he again addressed the youth. "Come, my
son," said he, "I will take you to an island covered with the most
beautiful pebbles, looking like silver. I wish you to assist me in gath-
ering some of them. They will make handsome ornaments, and are
possessed of great virtues." Entering the canoe, the magician made
use of his charm, and they were carried, in a few moments, to a soli-
tary bay in an island, where there was a smooth sandy beach. The
young man went ashore as usual. "A little further, a little further,"
cried the old man, "upon that rock you will get some finer ones." Then
pushing his canoe from land, "Come thou great king of fishes," cried
he, "you have long expected an offering from me. Come, and eat the
stranger I have put ashore on your island." So saying, he commanded
his canoe to return, and was soon out of sight. Immediately a mon-
strous fish shoved his long snout from the water, moving partially on
the beach, and opening wide his jaws to receive his victim.
"When" exclaimed the young man, drawing his knife, and placing
himself in a threatening attitude, "when did you ever taste human
food. Have a care of yourself. You were given by the Great Spirit to
man, and if you, or any of your tribes, taste human flesh, you will
fall sick and die. Listen not to the words of that wicked old man, but
carry me back to his island, in return for which, I shall present you a
piece of red cloth."
The fish complied, raising his back out of water to allow the young
man to get on. Then taking his way through the lake, landed his
charge safely at the island, before the return of the magician.
The daughters were still more surprized to see him thus escaped a
second time, from the arts of their father. But the old man maintained
his taciturnity. He could not, however, help saying to himself, "What
manner of boy is this, who ever escapes from my power. His spirit
shall not however save him. I will entrap him tomorrow. Ha! ha!
[Next day the magician addressed the young man as follows:
The Literary Voyager
"Come, my son/ 5 said he, "you must go with me to procure some
young eagles. I wish to tame them. I have discovered an island where
they are in great abundance." When they had reached the island,
Mishosha led him inland until they came to the foot of a tall pine,
upon which the nests were. "Now, my son," said he, "climb up this
tree and bring down the birds." The young man obeyed. When he
had with great difficulty got near the nest, "Now," exclaimed the
magician, addressing the tree, "stretch yourself up and be very tall."
The tree rose up at the command. "Listen, ye eagles," continued the
old man, "you have long expected a gift from me. I now present you
this boy, who has had the presumption to molest your young. Stretch
forth your claws and sieze him." So saying he left the young man to
his fate, and returned.
But the intrepid youth drawing his knife, and cutting off the head
of the first eagle that menaced him, raised his voice and exclaimed,
"Thus will I deal with all who come near me. What right have you,
ye ravenous birds, who were made to feed on beasts, to eat human
flesh? Is it because that cowardly old canoe-man has bid you do so?
He is an old woman. He can neither do you good nor harm. See, I
have already slain one of your number. Respect my bravery, and
carry me back that I may show you how I shall treat you."
The eagles, pleased with his spirit, assented, and clustering thick
around him formed a seat with their backs, and flew toward the en-
chanted island. As they crossed the water they passed over the magi-
cian, lying half asleep in his canoe.
The return of the young man was hailed with joy by the daughters,
who now plainly saw that he was under the guidance of a strong spirit.
But the ire of the old man was excited, although he kept his temper
under subjection. He taxed his wits for some new mode of ridding
himself of the youth, who had so successfully baffled his skill. He next
invited him to go a hunting.
Taking his canoe, they proceeded to an island and built a lodge to
shelter themselves during the night. In the mean while the magician
caused a deep fall of snow, with a storm of wind and severe cold. Ac-
cording to custom, the young man pulled off his moccasins and leg-
gings and hung them before the fire to dry. After he had gone to sleep
the magician, watching his opportunity, got up, and taking one moc-
casin and one legging, threw them into the fire. He then went to
sleep. In the morning, stretching himself as he arose and uttering an
No. 5. January 18%7
exclamation of surprise, "My son," said he, "what has become of your
moccasin and legging? I believe this is the moon in which fire attracts,
and I fear they have been drawn in." The young man suspected the
true cause of his loss, and rightly attributed it to a design of the
magician to freeze him to death on the march. But he maintained the
strictest silence, and drawing his conaus over his head thus communed
with himself: "I have full faith in the Manito who has preserved me
thus far, I do not fear that he will forsake me in this cruel emergency.
Great is his power, and I invoke it now that he may enable me to
prevail over this wicked enemy of mankind."
He then drew on the remaining moccasin and legging, and taking a
dead coal from the fireplace, invoked his spirit to give it efficacy, and
blackened his foot and leg as far as the lost garment usually reached.
He then got up and announced himself ready for the march. In vain
Mishosha led him through snows and over morasses, hoping to see
the lad sink at every moment. But in this he was disappointed, and
for the first time they returned home together.
Taking courage from this success, the young man now determined
to try his own power, having previously consulted with the daughters.
They all agreed that the life the old man led was detestable, and that
whoever would rid the world of him, would entitle himself to the
thanks of the human race.
On the following day the young man thus addressed his hoary
captor. "My grandfather, I have often gone with you on perilous ex-
cursions and never murmured. I must now request that you will ac-
company me, I wish to visit my little brother, and to bring him home
with me." They accordingly went on a visit to the main land, and
found the little lad in the spot where he had been left. After taking
him into the canoe, the young man again addressed the magician:
"My grandfather, will you go and cut me a few of those red willows
on the bank, I wish to prepare some smoking mixture." "Certainly,
my son," replied the old man, "what you wish is not very hard. Ha,
ha, ha! do you think me too old to get up there?" No sooner was
Mishosha ashore, than the young man, placing himself in the proper
position struck the canoe with his hand, and pronouncing the charm,
N'CHIMAUN POLL, the canoe immediately flew through the water
on its return to the island. It was evening when the two brothers ar-
rived, and carried the canoe ashore. But the elder daughter informed
the young man that unless he sat up and watched the canoe, and
The Literary Voyager
kept his hand upon it, such was the power of their father, it would
slip off and return to him. Panigwun watched faithfully till near the
dawn of day, when he could no longer resist the drowsiness which
oppressed him, and fell into a short doze. In the meantime the canoe
slipped off and sought its master, who soon returned in high glee.
"Ha, ha, ha! my son," said he; "you thought to play me a trick. It
was very clever. But you see I am too old for you."
A short time after, the young again addressed the magician. "My
grandfather, I wish to try my skill in hunting. It is said there is plenty
of game on an island not far off, and I have to request that you will
take me there in your canoe." They accordingly went to the island
and spent the day in hunting. Night coming on they put up a tempo-
rary lodge. When the magician had sunk into a profound sleep, the
young man got up, and taking one of Mishosha's leggings and moc-
casins from the place where they hung, threw them into the fire, thus
retaliating the artifice before played upon himself. He had discovered
that the foot and leg were the only vulnerable parts on the magician's
body. Having committed these articles to the fire, he besought his
Manito that he would raise a great storm of snow, wind, and hail,
and then laid himself down beside the old man. Consternation was
depicted on the countenance of the latter, when he awoke in the
morning and found his moccasin and legging missing. "I believe, my
grandfather," said the young man, "that this is the moon in which fire
attracts, and I fear your foot and leg garments have been drawn in."
Then rising and bidding the old man follow him, he began the morn-
ing's hunt, frequently turning to see how Mishosha kept up. He saw
him faltering at every step, and almost benumbed with cold, but en-
couraged him to follow, saying, we shall soon get through and reach
the shore; although he took pains, at the same time, to lead him in
round-about ways, so as to let the frost take complete effect. At length
the old man reached the brink of the island where the woods are suc-
ceeded by a border of smooth sand. But he could go no farther; his
legs became stiff and refused motion, and he found himself fixed to
the spot. But he still kept stretching out his arms and swinging his
body to and fro. Every moment he found the numbness creeping
higher. He felt his legs growing downward like roots, the feathers of
his head turned to leaves, and in a few seconds he stood a tall and
stiff sycamore, leaning toward the water.
No. 5. January 1827
Panigwun leaped into the canoe, and pronounced the charm, was
soon transported to the island, where he related his victory to the
daughters. They applauded the deed, agreed to put on mortal shapes,
become wives to the two young men, and for ever quit the enchanted
island. And passing immediately over to the main land, they lived
lives of happiness and peace.]
To A FRIEND ASLEEP
Awake my friend! the morning's fine,
Waste not in sleep the day divine,
Nature is clad in best array,
The woods, the fields, the flowers are gay ;
The sun is up, and speeds his march,
O'er heaven's high aerial arch,
His golden beams with lustre fall,
On lake and river, cot and hall;
The dews are sparkling on each spray,
The birds are chirping sweet and gay,
The violet shows its beauteous head,
Within its narrow, figured bed;
The air is pure, the earth bedight,
With trees and flowers, life and light,
All all inspires a joyful gleam,
More pleasing than a fairy dream.
Awake ! the sweet ref resiling scene,
Invites us forth to tread the green,
With joyful hearts, and pious lays,
To join the glorious Maker's praise,
The wond'rous works the paschal lamb,
The holy, high, and just I Am.
Mr. Ozhabeigde, 89
I have been an observer of the natural history of this vicinity, from
The Literary Voyager
the first establishment of the post, and the object has given increased
interest to my little excursions. In one of these excursions, to observe
the Indian method of making sugar from the sap of the acer sachari-
num, or rock maple, in the month of March, I observed a species of
grosbeck, which is, manifestly, a sojourner here, for a period, from
more northerly latitudes. The natives call it, paush-cun-da-mo. a
name which appears to refer to its power of breaking, or penetrating
the surface of what it feeds on. An Indian boy brought me a speci-
men, which he had killed with his bow and arrow. Using the beekut,
or blunt-headed arrow, the species was not at all injured, which en-
abled me to stuff and prepare for the New York Lyceum of Natural
History. It was there, determined to be a new specimen of the gros-
beck, and received the name of vespertina, from an impression of
Major Delafield, who had seen the species in the North West of lake
Superior, that it sings at evening.
AN ESSAY ON THE ORIGIN OF THE INDIAN TRIBES
'Twere hard by reason, or prophetic date,
To tell the Indian's utter end and fate,
But this may seem to human view more clear,
God formed the man, & led his footsteps here,
Albeit God formed him, his own word is plain,
Who formed all flesh & nothing formed in vain.
Adam and Noah, are the links that bind,
Two nether worlds and one creative kind
But food and climate, passion and disease,
Fulfilled minuter changes and decrees
Imprinting hues, in all their terrene track,
From paradiseal white, to ebon black
'Twas still the same created creature-man !
Run out, in kinds, through all th' eternal plan.
If red the Indian, be it understood,
'Tis of that work divine, pronounced all good.
I quote no learned lore, to tell you why,
God gave a blue, a brown or hazle eye,
A rosy, sallow, or high-pointed cheek,
No. 5. January 1887
A spirit ruthless, headlong, bland or meek,
Prowess to raise a tower, or sack a town,
Or fleetness to attain the victor's crown.
These, are but gifts bestowed in part or whole,
His moral image stampt he on the soul,
And if the Indian bears it, or can bear,
'Tis plain he is as much a son and heir,
As He, 90 who bore the temporary call,
Till Shiloh came to let in light to all.
The Red man, whom Columbus first espied,
Was naked but a man of stoic pride
Fond of his country much to pomp inclined
Grave, formal, shy, and taciturn of mind
A lover of light fancies beads and bells,
Bands, feathers, mantles, painting, gold & shells.
Seen farther north, the man was much the same,
But warmer clad, & more robust of frame
Experter proved he, with the bow and spear,
In words more eloquent fight more severe
But still the same kind, idle, stately child,
The climax of the human race run wild.
View him as Drake or Raleigh found the man,
Stretching along the shores of Powhatan
A subtil warrior, quick in every thing
A hunter, or a suppliant, or a king
Assuming here, and there declining power,
Now prompt, and now neglectful of the hour
Just as occasion swayed him, never still,
Fixed to one rule of action, thought or will,
But shaping his expedients thin & spare,
O'er so much space, as oft to leave half bare,
And under guise of many a simple art,
Hiding the darkest purpose of the heart.
Go, scan his acts a thousand miles away,
Some lighter shades may o'er the surface play
Denoting purpose, forecast, power of thought,
The Literary Voyager
And brow with amor patriae deeply wrought
But all as flashes, or ennobling gleams,
Leaving the mind a prey to wild extremes
Like him of old, by love supernal spumed,
And word prophetic deemed "a cake unturned," 91
Whether in speech or action, taste or touch,
Too hot, too cold, too little, or too much
Sad wrecks and glimmerings of an unformed mind,
Erst ample in its feelings, powers & kind
But lured away by hate, rebellion, pride,
By glory maddened, or by rage defied
Step after step pursued its downward road
Till far away from virtue, and from God.
'Twere vague to seize, as the generic type,
For such a race, the war club or the pipe,
Or any mere external art or sign,
Which fancy might adopt, or whim resign
Unless a firmer basis we can find,
In language, rites, opinions, cast of mind
Habits in life or death historic charts,
Letters, or signs, or monumental arts.
Small are the lights we from tradition drain
Yet, what is hardly gained, we truly gain,
As in some labors of the flinty ore,
Though few the grains, their value is the more.
If such the truths, we make our proof & test
Then prest the Indians first from east to west,
Or, if from Nilus or Euphrate's shores
Niger or Indus, or the old Azores,
Seas, islands, gulfs o'er past by will or lot,
We only name as something once forgot
But let us look a long lost people in the face
And scan the manners to denote the race.
Start where they may the purpose once exprest,
In weal or woe the tribes fierce onward prest,
No. 5. January 1827
Band urging band, as some vast herd in flight,
On Rio Roxo's plains display their might
Till faltering in their course of heady zeal,
Or braved in front, the broken columns wheel
And spreading wildly, their disordered train.
Halt where kind woods or greener fields detain,
There freely breathe, and paw the verdant ground,
Till hunger gnaw, or fear inflicts a sound.
So when the first primeval hunters strayed,
From orient climes, obeyed or disobeyed,
Thence in their ire, they passed from shore to shore,
The tribes behind, impelling tribes before
Till spreading over Asia's wide domain,
They trod the boundaries of her utmost plain,
There prest by cares, oblivion blots in night,
In dread and fear began their western flight.
Some wander up, some down the orient coast,
Or to the torrid south, or land of frost,
Some hug the main, some seize the ready one,
And isle, on isle, and coast on coast explore.
Some, by a sudden gale, at random cast,
Fly like a feather on the driving blast,
But heaven sustained, within the fragile bark
Here reach an island, there a broader mark
Till wafted, by new gales, or conquest planned,
They reach at last the continental land,
One calls himself a king the tale spreads soon,
This tumbled from the Sun, and that the Moon,
At least one trait of orient climes they bring,
Hyperbole to match the vainest king.
But most, by heaven's supernal finger shown,
Wind to the sea coasted broad Atlantic zone,
That geologic way, in love designed,
To spread the race, and all the grazing kind.
Doubtest thou the Greek? 92 Then tell me sapient seer,
How came the sloth and armadillo here?
The Literary Voyager
The patient lama, or the heavy bos.
Did these in boats, or frozen oceans cross?
Or did the sunny race of tropic tone
Erst burrow in the bleak and frigid zone?
Or must thou, by some skeptic phantom bid,
Belie all Moses wrote, all Noah did?
I go not with them. Deep volcanic fires,
Wide o'er the globe have pushed their granite spires,
Or plunged wide plains beneath the deepest tide,
Where once the banner waved in all its pride
And temples stood; the everlasting sea
Hath warred upon its borders wide and free.
And beat down continents of shelly coast
Enlarging her own empire. Means so vast
In elder times, ere letters had a name
Divided tribes, and thus the Indian came.
Better philosophy do thou devise!
Like Kant and Voltaire built on doubts & lies.
Fear to believe a miracle, with Hume
Lest truth o'er heavens bright Oracle should bloom,
With Milman 93 grope lest God should work by rule,
Or shifting Buckland 94 brand thee as a fool
Or with the poor blind Indian date his birth,
And say his grandsires crept from out the earth.
SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CELEBRATED MR I
Mr I, was the brother of the noted Mr. YOU, HE, and SHE, whose
children were we, us, and ours, ye, they and them, his cousins were
himself and themselves, and he was by far, the most distinguished of
that eminent family. He was at once the most talented, the wisest, and
the best. He was the bravest in battle, the swiftest in a race, and the
most expert in a struggle. When it came to writing, he was the most
ready, and fluent, the most gifted, most profound, and wise. He was
an orator, a historian, and a poet. It would be difficult, indeed, to tell
when and where it was, that this noted individual, did not come off
No. 5. January 18S7
first in every triumph, or attainment. He was, a Samson in strength,
an oracle in wisdom, a very Solomon in knowledge. Yet, though his
attainments were thus varied, we shall attempt, in a future number to
let the reader see, the steps by which he rose to eminence. Other men
have done nobly, but he exceeded them all. In short, all the wars,
woes, and tribulations of the world, were owing to this same Mr I. He
wrote the most splendid poems & histories, & fought the most cele-
The Literary Voyager
No. 7. 97 Saidt Ste. Marie February 1827
TRAITS OF PERSONAL ATTACHMENTS AMONG THE OJIBWAYS
Some years back I was brought to notice some of the characteristic
traits, of the natives of our forests and the rarity of such circum-
stances. Even in polished societies, as that to which I was an eye
witness induces me to state the particulars. The occurance which I
shall relate, took place at what may be called the farthest, at least it
was then so considered, and which few of the enterprising Eastern
adventurers had as yet reached at that period. The Individuals whom
I will bring to the notice of my readers, were pure natives, as I be-
lieve although they may have had some of the blood of the white
man. When I saw them, and became acquainted with their history,
Rosalie, the young woman had attained her eighteenth year. Her
native name was, Waub Onng Aqua or the Morning Star. She was
nature's pure child, and the impulses of her bosom had always flamed
in the same channel, up to the present time, and they were such as
what the white man would call very moral, although unacquainted
with the standard by which civilized moralists are guided. Free from
flattery and deceit, she belonged to a class whose manner of life
differed essentially from refined society. Pure in mind & simple in
appearance, she was exempt from evil, and feelings which she had
formed in early life were lasting. All the arts and inducements of some
could not overthrow them. As to her appearance she was tall and very
fair, remarkably so for one who could or would claim but little of the
white man's blood, her head was covered with black flowing hair,
which fell over her shoulders, and which was kept smooth by a head
comb, over the edge of her high forehead she wore a black ribbon,
which showed that to advantage.
Her teeth were white as pearl, her features were exact, her appear-
ance at first sight was engaging and modest and in all her movements
very graceful, she was adept in all the simple accomplishments of her
sex, she looked handsome in her garnished mockesins, & her neat plain
blue mantle, which induced others to copy her neatness. There was a
No. 7. February 1827
peculiar pleasantness in her looks, and her dark beaming eyes gave a
finish to the whole.
Glade, the young man was about twenty years old, little over six
feet strait and well proportioned, well skilled in the arts of a hunter
and fisher, bold & brave in the sport or Dance or in the use of fusee 98
& arrow. He was the pride of all. Such were the individuals, who had
formed a friendship in infancy, and which grew with their growth, till
they found that the tie was impossible to break. Circumstances had
rendered it necessary for the young man, whose Indian name was
Wawabegwonabec (or the Waving Plume) to leave his birthplace for
a year at least. Others were busy in their preparations for a voyage
to the Upper Mississippi. And it was at this period that I first became
acquainted with him. The interest I took in him, caused him to place
confidence in me, and he related to me his situation and prospects. I
told him I would aid him as much as lay in my power, and when in-
quiry was made, if they could take Rosalie along, the answer was, that
it was utterly impossible, and having given his word that he would go
on the voyage, and impelled by other motives, he concluded that
sooner than break his promise, that he would go, and leave her be-
hind for a year, one whom he thought to have taken as his betrothed
wife, and in whom his whole affections were centered.
The voyagers to the Mississippi, were to leave by the earliest dawn,
and the party had already encamped about one mile from the vil-
lage." He requested me to accompany him, to bid farewell to the
friend of his childhood, and the loved object of his youth. We reached
the lodge a little before sunset, which was situated on a high point of
land, which overlooked the rapids, and beyond the foot of the falls.
The view extended a mile or two over the smooth gliding waters of
the river, and the place was shaded by tall and majestic elms and
maples, which cast a melancholy shade over the whole, and where
often her plaintive notes were heard, as she watched or expected her
lover to arrive in his light and buoyant bark canoe. We found her
seated on a rock, listening to the passing bubbling stream, and gazing
on the smooth surface of the river, as it glided along a short distance
below, and which the declining rays of the sun, gave a golden ap-
pearance, and those rays cast their mellow shades over the beautiful
scenery around. As we approached, her eyes beamed with pleasure,
and the young man took a seat near her. It was some time before he
The Literary Voyager
could tell her, that it was impossible for her to accompany him and
that he had come to bid her farewell. With great exertion he told her
the sad news, and he rose, and stood before her. She gazed at him
with a look of vacancy, and extended her arms, and said, "will you
thus leave me," and both clasped each other in their arms. When she
was again seated, I used all the encouraging language I could to re-
lieve their feelings. I told them to hope for future happiness, and
brighter prospects. I then took the young man by the arm, and led
him from the painful scene. The young woman cast a wild look after
us, and then dropped her head on her bosom, and we turned an angle
of the road or path, and she and all the village was lost to our view.
The next day saw us on the blue waters of the Lake; days passed,
but what a change in the young man. I tried to console him, and his
eye at moments would beam with joy, but it was only momentary,
but his looks were sad and melancholy, and he would never join in
the sport and boisterous laugh of the young men who composed the
party. His only relief appeared to be, to come to me, and mention
those fears and hopes, which hung nearest his heart, and after receiv-
ing all the soothing consolation which I could give, appeared to retire
with some relief. And it was not, till some time after we had entered
the hazardous incidents of an overland journey to the Mississippi,
that he appeared to get over his sadness. A long winter succeeded.
Days and months wore away. At last Spring came, with it, partially
his flow of spirits returned, as we rapidly descended the streams which
took us to the lake, and when we once more viewed the wide blue
waters of it, which would lead us home, he ran and jumped with joy,
on the fine white sand, and his countenance once more beamed with
We will turn for a few moments to the young woman, who as anx-
iously as himself expects his return. We left her seated on a rock, and
the intensity of her feelings were such, that no tears came to relieve
her in this painful situation, and it was not till late in the evening,
that she entered the lodge. She did not upbraid her fate, although the
young man she knew would have to undergo perils. Her sorrow was
still and melancholy, and she never mentioned any thing connected
with it to any one. Only days afterwards, could she shed tears, which
were balm to her bosom, and she looked more serene and happy, and
when that name was mentioned, her eyes would beam with inward
pleasure. She never would join her friends in their innocent amuse-
No. 7. February 1827
ments, but preferred remaining at home, and passed her time in antici-
pating the wishes of her parents, brothers and sisters. She loved to
walk under the shades of those trees alone, and take her seat near the
brink of the rapid and foaming stream, and there pour out her feel-
ings, in that low plaintive and melancholy strain which is so peculiar
to the Indian women, and which only those who understand it, can
appreciate. Time passed, and she had to undergo trials. Numbers of
her own rank in life showed her all the attention they possibly could.
Offers were made, and those whose pecuniary means could have made
her happy were among the number. Arts were used and high induce-
ments held out to her, but she turned from them with eyes moist with
tears and mildly refused all their offers. Spring came on, with its ac-
customed loveliness, and their lodge was once more situated on that
beautiful spot which we have mentioned before, and it was in the
latter part of May, the ground was covered with wild flowers, the
weather mild and exhilarating, and she was seated on the same rock
which we have mentioned before, it overlooked a village of lodges
below, all were enjoying the pleasant afternoon. All appeared to be
happy but herself. When word was brought to her that the boats from
the lake were in sight, she hastily threw on her blue mantle and went
up to the accustomed landing place. When she reached it, the Boat
was just nearing the land, and before it touched they clasped each
other in their arms; I never witnessed a more affecting meeting. Some
of the baggage was landed, in order that the boats might descend the
rapids with safety. She said she would accompany him, and when all
was landed at the village, I went to visit those in whom nature had
implanted such strong feelings of virtue, and those females who are
gifted with such virtues, devotedness & constancy; they are indeed
ornaments to their sexes, and a blessing to man, and may all such
realize the joys which this world can give. I witnessed the ceremony
which connected their hearts for life, & they were happy in the circle
of their friends. A pleasant period after I bid adieu to them and the
interesting scenes of the West. 100
RESPECTING POINT IROQUOIS
Oshawushcodawaqua 101 relates, that the Chippewas, when settled at
Garden river, 102 lived in continual dread of the Iroquois; war parties
of whom were often on their borders, and carried off stragglers. One
The Literary Voyager
day, a man with his wife and two children, went down the river,
fishing. While thus employed, they were surprized and taken by a
party of Iroquois in four large canoes. The latter held on their way
up the river, to the falls, taking the west channel, by which they
escaped notice. The friends of the captured family, fearing that some
accident had befallen them, sent a scout to ascertain. This man,
learning the fact of their capture, and the route the enemy had pur-
sued, lost no time in reporting it, to the Garden river band. A council
was immediately held. It was determined to collect their forces, and
give pursuit. But as a preparatory step, several scouts were sent up
the river to make discoveries. When they came to St. Mary's, they
landed on the Canada shore, near the head of Sugar island, and fol-
lowing cautiously through woods and grass till they came opposite
the village of St. Mary, described the Iroquois encamped upon the
hill. They had boiled the Chippewa captive, and were dancing round
the kettle, each warrior holding his spear-club before him, and occa-
sionally thrusting it into the kettle and taking out bits of the flesh
then shouting with one voice. The most fearless defiance marked their
The Chippewa scouts having returned and given information of
what they had observed, a war party was soon mustered, and started
in the pursuit. They were joined on the way by others, making the
total number of warriors about one hundred.
When this party reached the old village of St. Mary's, they found
the Iroquois had passed on, directing their course into lake Superior,
but so recently, that their drums could still be heard as they advanced
up the river. When the enemy reached Point aux Pins, 103 the wind
was ahead, and they were detained there two days. On the third day,
they attempted the passage at a late hour, the waves still running
high. It was almost dark when they reached the cape of land, since
called Point Iroquois; 104 where they encamped in six lodges. They had
time before dark, to fix their camp, peel some bark, &c. The weather
The Chippewas had narrowly watched all their movements, and
kept at a distance behind. They were led by four chiefs, one of whom
was a prophet. They reached Point aux Pins a short time after the
Iroquois left it, and were in great doubt about following them that
evening. The prophet had recourse to his art, and announced that if
No. 7. February
a dark cloud arose, and appeared to pursue an irregular waving
course through the air, their enterprize would be crowned with suc-
cess. What had been easily foretold, in so unsettled a day, happened,
and the whole band inspirited by this favorable omen embarked in
two divisions one holding on into the lake with a view to strike the
shore beyond Point Iroquois, the other keeping more directly across
the strait to make the land on this side. Both parties reached the
shore in the dark and undiscovered. They united and formed a circle
around the camp of the Iroquois. They then sent scouts to observe
narrowly the situation of the enemies camps. They found them still
up, singing their war songs, and beating their drums in the same
fearless manner which they had carried at St. Mary's. They seemed
wholly unsuspicious of any approaching enemy.
This being reported, the Chippewa leaders determined to wait, till
they should go to sleep. The prophet predicted that it would rain
towards day-break. It was arranged in their evening council, that
each tent should be surrounded at the same moment, the poles lifted
and the tent thus precipitated upon the sleepers. And that they should
then use their clubs in putting to death each one, as he arose, and
struggled to get free. Their bows and arrows were of no use.
The plan succeeded according to their most sanguine expectations.
They entered the camp during a shower of rain, near day light. Not
a soul was awake to give the alarm ; and every Iroquois was put to
death except two. There were about fifty in all.
The two saved, tradition adds, were furnished with canoe, and told
to go and inform their relatives of the result, and to tell them never
again to venture into the Chippewa country.
Thus far the tradition. On comparing it with Alexander Henry
(vide his Travels 105 ) important variations will be found. He says 1000
Iroquois were killed. Carver had previously stated that the Chippewas
were aided by the Foxes, or Outagamis, and that the battle was
fought, partly in canoes. We adhere to the account above given, deem-
ing it much more rational and consistent. We doubt whether the Chip-
pewas were ever in sufficient force, in this quarter, to defeat and kill
a thousand Iroquois. We have also great doubts whether the Foxes,
at that period, the enveterate enemies of the Chippewas, ever had the
magnanimity, as related by Henry, to lay aside their animosity, and
assist their enemies.
The Literary Voyager
The rule which we have adopted, with regard to communications,
does not require that we should express an opinion of their merit, in
any more definite manner than is to be inferred from their insertion.
Our acknowledgements are due to our esteemed correspondents
Hibernicus 106 and Rosa, 107 for their poetic contributions. The former
has placed in our hands many of the effusions of his younger years,
with permission to extract ad libitum. We have derived pleasure from
their perusal; and we hope, through the future numbers of our paper,
to be the medium of communicating the same pleasure to our readers.
The best test of good poetry is the pleasure derived from its per-
usal, and we take it for granted that no poetry can please without
some share of the ardor of genius, and the charms of harmony. Critics
may give a thousand rules for constructing good verses, but poets are
guided solely by nature. To express strongly, what they feel deeply,
and in a way the most natural and brief, is the height of their art.
The opinion we expressed, in our first number, of the poetical ac-
complishments of "Rosa," we have seen no reason to retract. There
is a naivette in her productions which is often the concomitant of
taste and genius. The chastness of her images, the lively strain of
piety and confiding hope in the dispensations of Providence, and the
pensive serenity which marks her favorite morning and evening land-
scapes, are so many traits which arrest our admiration. When to these
positive recommendations of her poetic attempts, we add the limited
opportunities of her early life, and the scenes of seclusion which so
much of her time had been passed, we think there is still greater cause
to appreciate and admire. We think the "Lines written under afflic-
tion," in the present number highly beautiful, possessing at once both
energy and consonance. We solicit a continuation of her efforts.
LINES WRITTEN UNDER AFFLICTION
Ah! who, with a sensative mind possest,
Recalls the swift years that are gone,
Without mingled emotions both bitter & blest,
At the good & the ill he has known.
Or, how could a beautiful landscape please,
If it showed us no feature but light?
No. 7. February 1827
Tis the dark shades alone that give pleasure & ease,
'Tis the union of sombre and bright.
So wisely has God in his mercy ordain'd,
That the bitterest cup he has cast,
Is mixed with a sweetness, which still is retain'd,
To be drank and enjoyed at the last.
Thus feelings are chasten'd, & life is refin'd,
By pangs that misfortunes convey,
To minds that have faith, & to bosoms resign'd,
To bear to forbear, and obey.
And tho' for a while, he condemns us in strife,
To languish, and suffer, and die;
Yet the sunshine of promise of hope & of life,
Allures us to bliss in the sky.
MUSHKOWEGEECHIS, STRONG OR ANGRY SKY
This young man with his wife and two children from the upper part
of lake Superior, appeared among the visitors at the new post, and
agency established here in 1822. On the night of the 26th July, he
was murdered in a drinking affray at an Indian camp at the head of
the portage. The murderer was a half breed called Gaulthier from the
Lac du Flambeau region, with whom he had been carousing during
the night. Gaulthier and his savage companions fled, leaving his vic-
tim stretched out, lifeless on the grass. As soon as the affair was re-
ported, the agent proceeded to the spot. Meantime, his widow and
the brother of the deceased had dressed the corpse in his best apparel,
and a new blanket, putting a cap and feathers on his head. He had
been killed by a heavy blow with a pipe tomahawk, just above his
right eye brow. The agent caused the body to be removed to the
ancient Indian burial ground, near fort Brady, and decently interred.
The Indian ceremonies, preparatory to this, were impressive. The
coffin was brought and laid beside the open grave, and the lid re-
moved. An Indian orator then pronounced a eulogy, in which his
The Literary Voyager
acts and character were recited. The brother then removed his cap,
and pulled out some locks of his hair, when the cap was replaced, and
the lid tied (not nailed) down. Two sticks of wood were now laid
across the open grave. The brother then took the hand of the widow,
and led her across the grave, he, taking one, and leaving her the other
stick to walk on. The earth was then cast in, and the grave rounded
up, and a cedar post put at its head, marked with hieroglyphics.
I recently observed an Indian pouch garnished with beads, inter-
spersed with a species of small elongated univalve sea shell. The nacre
of this shell was very white and smooth. The specimen itself tapers to
a point. A string of leather passed through each shell, which enabled
the wearer to fasten it, in a transverse direction, on the ornamental
parts of the pouch. It was evidently regarded, by the native owner,
as possessing a magic virtue, which is generally attributed to shells
from the ocean. From close inspection, it proved to be the Dentalium
eliphanticum, with the lip removed. It had been originally derived,
from Indians at the mouth of the Columbia river, and passed from
hand to hand, and transmitted in their traffic with each other, to this
WORSHIP OF THE SUN
Tacitus informs us, Vol. 3, p 242. Oblations and public thanksgivings
were decreed, at Rome, to the Sun, who was installed among the
multifarious gods of that empire.
Shingwauk a Meday of the Chippewas, and one of the chiefs of the
St. Mary's band, informs me, that the Sun was formerly worshipped
by the northern Indians. They regarded it, as a symbol of the deity
not as the deity himself, and by the divergence of its rays, it was
deemed to diffuse intelligence, as well as light, through the world.
In examining some pictured scrolls, of this nation, the sun is
depicted, in several places, to represent the Great Spirit. The picto-
graph is uniformly drawn as a human head, with heavy rays, sur-
rounding it, resembling a rude halo.
No. 1. February 18W
ALGONAC, A CHIPPEWA LAMENT
ON HEARING THE REVELLIE AT THE POST OF ST. MARY'S
From dreams short and broken, prophetic and high,
I wake in my cabin to ponder and sigh!
I think on the days, when transcendently blest,
My forefathers reveUed, the Lords of the West,
And fired by ambition, or valor severe
They wing'd the dread arrow, or brandish'd the spear
I think how their wisdom their valor, their might,
Prevailed in the council, the chase, and the fight,
And I sigh to reflect, all deprest and o'ercast,
Those ages have vanish'd those glories are past!
But hark! from yon battlements bristled with steel,
What sounds o'er these woodlands so heavily peal?
Now rolling redoubling, concussive and clear,
'Tis the signal of day for the soldier. To him,
There's a joy in the music no tears ever dim,
It speaks to his feelings his habitshis pride,
More keenly than all human language beside :
But me far, far diff'rent sensations oppress
It strikes on my ear like the note of distress
Ah ! how can those sounds please my kindred or me,
Which remind us, our nation no longer is free!
My fancy reverts to the moments so bland,
When my own native music prevailed in the land;
And my fathers danced blithe, on the oak-covered hill,
Remote from the White-man, and all his proud skill,
Day breaks in the east! but its glimmer no more,
Lights hope in our bosoms, or joy on our shore;
Ah ! why should its beams more illumine the cot,
Where the war song is mute, and the war dance forgot,
Where the bow & the arrow, the spear and the mace,
Gleam no more in the battle, or ring in the chase!
Ah ! why should not heaven, kind heaven, resume,
Its primitive darkness, &, shroud me in gloom?
Oh fly! ye bright streaks that bedapple the morn,
Nor shine on a mortal so sunk and forlorn!
The Literary Voyager
The beauty of day, I no longer can see,
Night-midnight, alone is congenial to me.
Ye birds cease your warblings ! my heart cannot bear,
The joys that, so thrill'd it, when fortune was fair,
And roud'd by the combat, or led by the chase,
I rov'd, unconfmed, thro' the regions of space,
Track'd the deer from his covert, the wolf from his den,
Or rush'd to the charge with the noblest of men.
Oh teach me ! ye wise men, who broadly survey,
The causes that hasten my nation's decay,
Come! teach me, to smile on the beauties that lie,
In the bright vernal landscape, the red evening sky,
While pining in want, by misfortune opprest,
The scorpion, slavery, is gnawing my breast.
Wabishkizzy 109 may smile, Wabishkizzy may say,
I will teach you to read, I will teach you to pray,
But say, when our arts, manners, customs are lost,
What, then shall we cherish, what then shall we boast.
When the war flag is struck, &, the war drum is still,
And the council fire glimmers no more on the hill !
Can we feel any pride, but, our forefathers pride
To live as they lived &, to die as they died.
They tell me, that, blessings for me, are in store,
The sage's-saint's-poet's-philosopher's lore
The comforts that, labor and science bestow,
The loom &, the compass, the sickle &, plough!
But, ah! can they tell me, where joy shall abide,
Without, national customs, or national pride !
And here my grief presses ! these ramparts so high,
White-white as the summer cloud floats in the sky,
These walls but, remind me, how cruelly cast,
My own native woods are encompassed at last,
In vain 'tis averr'd, with no hostile design,
That, in guarding their country, they tranquillize mine.
But, whenever I look on those common-pierc'd walls
A fearful sensation my bosom appals,
No. 7. February 1827
Whenever I see, on these once-happy grounds
The sentinel pacing his limited rounds,
Or borne down the stream with the low evening hum
I hear the loud notes of the deep rolling drum,
I start from my visions I cannot but see,
My nation, my nation! no longer is free;
That, all this long muster of cannon &, steel,
Tho' prudence may sanction, deny, or conceal,
But, gleams o'er the war-path that leads to the grave,
Their object, to conquer, destroy, and enslave.
Thus rous'd from his slumbers, proud Algonac sung,
A wild native melody dwelt, on his tongue,
Then folding his robe, he sunk back on the plain,
And courted his dreams &, his slumbers again.
(Feb. 1) Alalcol 110
The Literary Voyager
No. 8. Sault Ste. Marie February 13th 1827
Every undertaking to amuse, through the medium of pen, ink and
paper, implies some degree of order in the employment of time, and
some moral, or literary effort, however humble. And it can be known
to those only, who have made the experiment, how greatly the labor
is facilitated by the aid of the press where it is the business of
others, to decypher, copy, and arrange. In fact, no inconsiderable
part of the whole time we devote to this sheet, is taken up by the
drudgery of transcribing.
In supplying it with matter, we did not, at the beginning, expect
much assistance, out of the circle to whom it is dedicated, and we
have not received much. The little we have received we are, however,
very thankful for, and solicit a continuance of it. If it does npt
greatly swell in bidk, it tends to diversify and amuse. We much regret
that those who are so competent to aid us, in this way, should ever
want the leisure or the inclination.
THE AGE OF SCIENCE
States have advanced with Statesman, laws with crimes,
Scholars with schools, & governments with times ;
Arts, science, letters, enterprize and trade,
New genius brighten'd, new discov'ries made,
Till ancient errors, fading one by one,
In the pure light of truth's all-searching sun,
No longer linger o'er the human mind,
Taught, rais'd, enlighten'd, altered and refin'd,
Till human labor stript of half its care,
Winds, fire & water, steam and acids share
Till power, no longer swayed by tyrant hands
Reverting to its source hath burst its bands
Till mind & matter's laws display'd we see,
And man, long-f etter'd man, at last is free !
No. 8. February ISth 1887
But in this change, so happy & so bright!
In this proud glare of intellectual light,
Is there no spot to soil its sunny hue!
No murky cloud to blear the natt'ring view,
No latent folly, hov'ring o'er the times,
To dim their brilliancy, & point their crimes?
Turn and survey, you learn, cadav'rous throng!
In vain inventive, clamorously wrong,
For whom in vain, great Faustus hath essay'd,
Wits written, poets sung, & martyrs pray'd,
Whom light could ne'er illume, nor reason school,
The schemer, the empirio, and the fool.
Mark Mechanistus plodding underground,
For novel modes of motion, light, and sound,
For principles, unknown to nature's laws,
Ends without means, effects without a cause;
Now wrapt in golden doubts, & midnight schemes,
He hews a model, fancied once in dreams!
Or buoyed with hopes, mole-working dulness feels,
Lost in the plenitude of cranks and wheels,
He sees in thought before his sleepless eyes,
Wide o'er the land his labor'd engines rise.
And streamless wastes, & high o'er hanging hills,
Groaning with self "impelling cars or mills;
He joys within himself, that none before,
Had found the long-sought mighty, golden power!
Ah ! luckless man, with all thy hair-brain'd skill,
At lock or pulley, lever, crank, or mill,
How link'd, how like's thy nature & thy rules,
Perpetual motions and perpetual fools.
Lo ! yonder night, who, sour'd by fortune's frown,
Now walks at noon-day slip-shod thro' the town,
He, lost to mirth, and foe to cleanly rooms,
Plods in lone cellars, or in attic glooms,
Buried in chips & gauzes, glues & strings,
The proud materials of human wings :
Alike to him, if Greek or Turk prevail,^
So he can mould a wing, or form a tail,
The Literary Voyager
Nay, fleets may perish, quadrupeds all die,
For what their further use? he soon will fly!
Strange! that a being formed for high pursuits,
Should covet thus the meaner pow'rs of brutes,
Turn from, his proper business, sphere & use,
And sigh for the endowments of a goose !
Rhabdomus, arts more daring aims to teach,
Arts that supernal powers alone can reach!
With monkish skill & old alchemic lore
From foreign climes he seeks our happy shore;
Well skilPd is he, in many a darkling trick,
By magic rod, or prescient hazel stick,
Or quick effluvia, piercing through the ground,
His nostrils guiding, as they guide a hound.
Deep read, in nature's most occult designs,
And erudite in cabalistic signs,
Well vers'd in many a wizard-wise conceit,
Where hidden waters run, & where they meet,
Where subterranean treasures lie forgotj
In isle or main, bed, cavity, or pot:
Nor less to him, such powers of speech belong,
As still may serve to hold the gazing throng,
And fix their wonder; they on tiptoe stand,
To catch his tale, but eye his gilded wand;
They ponder much on all that he has wrought,
Gold in each hope, a mine in every thought,
And still with dumb belief, the wonder spreads,
To hear of all he sees & knows & dreads!
They marvel much, how any mortal eye,
Light task for him! can read the fates on high,
Tell when propitious, & when adverse signs,
Shine thro' the Stars in clear prophetic lines;
Or, if beneath, he casts his piercing view,
What beds of rock his vision passes through,
What envious flint the silver store detains!
What stubborn granite hides the golden veins!
The while, he points their course & their extent,
No. 8. February 13th 1827
And estimates their value to a cent !
Thus fortified, with sight and smell canine,
To trace, predict, unravel and divine
Thus wrapt in skill, he moves across the plain
A walking pestilence, a living bane,
Shame, dullness, and delusion in his train.
At his approach the lawn-devouring spade,
Upturns the area, mars the promenade;
The urn-cap'd wall, a venerable show,
Is doomed to fall a treasure lurks below!
The box-hedg'd garden, late so choice a care,
Is next destroy 'd a spring is flowing there!
The dusty public way, the planted field,
Nor grain can save, nor rattling cars can shield.
The grave itself, revered for many an age,
No longer sacred, feels the mad'ning rage,
And e'en the mansion, loved more dear than well,
Curs'd by the rage, at last is doomed to fall.
And are there minds, so much by toil debas'd,
So lost to reason, truth, religion, taste,
Who, spite of all that science hath design'd,
And the broad march of letters & of mind,
Still pleas'd can stoop to fan this flagging rage,
And fix a vulgar stigma on the age?
Let Yale reply Yale's hoary, classic shades,
And Ulster's plains, & Richmond's island-glades !
THE FORSAKEN BROTHER
A CHIPPEWA TALE
It was a fine summer evening; the sun was scarcely an hour high,
its departing rays beamed through the foliage of the tall, stately elms,
that skirted the little green knoll, on which a solitary Indian lodge
stood. The deep silence that reigned in this sequested and romantic
spot, seemed to most of the inmates of that lonely hut, like the long
sleep of death, that was now evidently fast sealing the eyes of the
The Literary Voyager
head of this poor family. His low breathing was answered by the
sighs of his disconsolate wife and their children. Two of the latter
were almost grown up, one was yet a mere child. These were the only
human beings near the dying man. The door of the lodge was thrown
open to admit the refreshing breeze of the lake, on the banks of
which it stood; and as the cool air fanned the head of the poor man,
he felt a momentary return of strength, and raising himself a little,
he thus addressed his weeping family. "I leave you thou, who hast
been my partner in life, but you will not stay long to suffer in this
world. But oh! my children, my poor children! you have just com-
menced life, and mark me, unkindness, and ingratitude, and every
wickedness is in the scene before you. I left my kindred and my tribe,
because I found what I have just warned you of. I have contented
myself with the company of your mother and yourselves, for many
years, and you will find my motives for separating from the haunts
of men, were solicitude and anxiety to preserve you from the bad
examples you would inevitably have followed. But I shall die content,
if you, my children promise me, to cherish each other, and on no
account to forsake your youngest brother, of him I give you both
particular charge." The man became exhausted, and taking a hand
of each if his eldest children, he continued "My daughter! never
forsake your little brother. My son, never forsake your little brother."
"Never, never!" they both exclaimed. "Never never!" repeated the
father and expired.
The poor man died happy, because he thought his commands would
be obeyed. The sun sank below the trees, and left a golden sky be-
hind, which the family were wont to admire, but no one heeded it
now. The lodge that was so still an hour before, was now filled with
low and unavailing lamentations. Time wore heavily away five long
moons had passed and the sixth was nearly full, when the mother also
died. In her last moments she pressed the fulfilment of their promise
to their departed father. They readily renewed their promise, because
they were yet free from any selfish motive. The winter passed away,
and the beauties of spring cheered the drooping spirits of the bereft
little family. The girl, being the eldest, dictated to her brothers, and
seemed to feel a tender and sisterly affection for the youngest, who
was rather sickly and delicate. The other boy soon showed symptoms
of restlessness, and addressed the sister as follows. "My sister, are
we always to live as if there were no other human beings in the world.
No. 8. February 13th 18<27
Must I deprive myself the pleasure of associating with my own kind?
I shall seek the villages of men; I have determined, and you cannot
prevent me." The girl replied, "My brother, I do not say no, to what
you desire. We were not prohibited, the society of our fellow mortals,
but we were told to cherish each other, and that we should no [do]
nothing independent of each other that neither pleasure nor pain
ought ever to separate us, particularly from our helpless brother. If
we follow our separate gratifications, it will surely make us forget
him whom we are alike bound to support." The young man made no
answer, but taking his bow and arrows left the lodge, and never
Many moons had come and gone, after the young man's departure,
and still the girl administered to the wants of her younger brother. At
length, however, she began to be weary of her solitude, and of her
charge. Years, which added to her strength and capability of directing
the affairs of the household, also brought with them the desire of
society, and made her solitude irksome. But in meditating a change
of life, she thought only for herself, and cruelly sought to abandon
her little brother, as her elder brother had done before.
One day after she had collected all the provisions she had set apart
for emergencies, and brought a quantity of wood to the door, she said
to her brother. "My brother, you must not stray far from the lodge.
I am going to seek our brother: I shall soon be back." Then taking
her bundle, she set off, in search of habitations. She soon found them,
and was so much taken up with the pleasures and amusements of
society, that all affection for her brother was obliterated. She accepted
a proposal of marriage, and after that, never more thought of the
helpless relative she had abandoned.
In the meantime the elder brother had also married, and settled on
the shores of the same lake, which contained the bones of his parents,
and the abode of his forsaken brother.
As soon as the little boy had eaten all the food left by his sister, he
was obliged to pick berries and dig up roots. Winter came on, and the
poor child was exposed to all its rigors. He was obliged to quit the
lodge in search of food, without a shelter. Sometimes he passed the
night in the clefts of old trees, and ate the refuge meats of the wolves.
The latter soon became his only resource, and he became so fearless of
these animals, that he would sit close to them whilst they devoured
their prey, and the animals themselves seemed to pity his condition,
The Literary Voyager
and would always leave something. Thus he lived, as it were, on the
bounty of fierce wolves until spring. As soon as the lake was free from
ice, he followed his new found friends and companions to the shore.
It happened his brother was fishing in his canoe in the lake, a con-
siderable distance out, when he thought he heard the cry of a child,
and wondered how any could exist on so bleak a part of the shore. He
listened again more attentively, and distinctly heard the cry repeated.
He made for shore as quick as possible, and as he approached land,
discovered and recognized his little brother, and heard him singing in
a plaintive voice
Neesya, neesya, shyegwuh gushuh!
Ween ne myeengunish!
My brother, my brother,
I am now turning into a Wolf!
I am turning into a Wolf.
At the termination of his song, he howled like a Wolf, and the
young man was still more astonished when, on getting nearer shore,
he perceived his poor brother half turned into that animal. He how-
ever, leapt on shore and strove to catch him in his arms, and sooth-
ingly said "My brother, my brother, come to me." But the boy
eluded his grasp, and fled, still singing as he fled "I am turning into
a Wolf I am turning into a wolf," and howling in the intervals.
The elder brother, conscience struck, and feeling his brotherly affec-
tion returning with redoubled force, exclaimed in great anguish, "My
brother, my brother, come to me." But the nearer he approached the
child, the more rapidly his transformation went on, until he changed
into a perfect wolf, still singing and howling, and naming his brother
and sister alternately in his song, as he fled into the woods, until his
change was complete. At last he said. "I am a wolf," and bounded out
The young man felt the bitterness of remorse all his days, and the
sister, when she heard of the fate of the little boy whom she had so
cruelly left, and whom both she and her brother had solemnly prom-
ised to foster and protect, wept bitterly; and never ceased to mourn
until she died.
No. 8. February 13th 1887
LINES WRITTEN UNDER SEVERE PAIN AND SICKNESS
Ah! why should I at fortune's lot repine,
Or fret myself against the will divine?
All men must go to death's deform'd embrace,
When here below they've run their destin'd race;
Oh! then on Thee, my Savior, I will trust,
For thou art good, as merciful and just,
In Thee, with my whole heart I will confide,
And hope with Thee, forever to abide.
To Thee, my God, my heart & soul I raise,
And still thy holy, holy name I'll praise!
! deign to give me wisdom, virtue, grace,
That I thy heavenly will may ever trace;
Teach me each duty always to fulfil,
And grant me resignation to Thy will,
And when Thy goodness wills that I should die,
This dream of life I'll leave without a sigh.
ANTIQUE ART OF THE INDIANS
It has been remarked that the North American Indians have left no
monuments by the study of which, their history is to be elucidated.
And in fact, they have left none, if we require any advanced state of
the arts, or even phonetic signs, inscriptions, or the use of iron tools
in any form, as essential to constitute monumental remains. Their
sculptural attempts in bone, shell, and steatite or clay stone, their
spear heads of jasper or hornstone, their lancets of fractured flint,
and even their more labored efforts in the production of the Mikeen-
gwun, or stone chisel for fleshing raw skins, and axes of hornblende
and porphyry, and their stone pestles for pounding grain, are the
works of a people in a very rude state of society, and evince neither
much industry or ingenuity beyond what may be deemed essential to
supply the incipient wants of a state of nature. There is probably, a
greater proficiency in mechanical or manufacturing skill, evinced hi
the construction of their earthen cooking vessels, than in any of their
rude simple monuments.
Having had a strong desire, from the frequent examination of small
The Literary Voyager
fragments, to procure an entire vessel, we succeeded in ascertaining
that two vessels of this kind, were buried on an island. It required an
effort to overcome the reluctance of the chief, who knew the locality,
to discover them. He would not consent to conduct any person to the
spot. He, at length, consented through the influence and politeness of
T[homas] G. Anderson Esqr. of the British Indian Department to re-
move one of the vessels to his village. We visited his residence for the
purpose of receiving it in the spring of 1826. After the customary pre-
liminaries of such a visit, he said he had removed the vessel, and
would point it out to us. We followed him into the woods a consider-
able distance. When he came near the spot where he had secreted it.
he stopped and informed us it was at hand. He had still a reluctance
to point out the precise locality, and left us to search for it. It was
deposited under the body of a fallen tree. We detail these circum-
stances to exemplify a degree of caution and distrust which is a
general trait of the Indian character.
In shape and capacity this relic is not unlike a modern iron pot,
except that it is without legs. The lower part is globular, contracting
at the neck, and the lip is inflected. It appears to have been used, by
being placed on a bed, or earth, or ashes, in the manner of a chemical
retort upon a sand bath. It is formed with general regularity, and of
an equal thickness. The exterior appears to have been carefully
smoothed, but has not the circularly striated appearance of common
pottery turned in the lathe. The interior structure, as shows upon a
fractured edge, is coarse, and the materials employed in the mixture,
appear to be essentially silex and clay. Upon the interior of the rim,
is a blackish carbonaceous crust.
We enquired of the chief, how long he supposed it was since his
people had relinquished the use of such vessels. He replied that he
was the seventh chief, in a direct line, since the first appearance of
the French among them. And that the French had supplied them with
copper and brass kettles, which were not so easily broken, and that
the women, whose province it was, to make the earthen pots, had long
since lost the art. This chief, who is still living, and whose name is
Kewikonce, evinced a degree of knowledge of Indian history, and a
reflective turn of mind, which it is not frequent to meet with among
his countrymen, circumstances, which lead us to place more reliance
upon his statements than we otherwise should.
No. 8. February 13th 1827
If we assume the period of Cartier's first visit to the St. Lawrence
(1534) as the era of the first intercourse of the North Western
Indians with white men, and this is perhaps a few years too early, a
fraction over four scriptural generations has only elapsed since the
event. By the statements of Kewikonce, seven generations of Indians,
being a fraction over 40 years to each generation, has passed away
within the same period. This instance is too partial to admit, of a
general conclusion. But may be regarded as affording proof that the
Indians have not, at least since the discovery, attained the longevity
of the European stock.
THE YELLOW ISLE
"Listen white-man I go not there!
Unseen spirits stalk the air;
Hungry birds their influence lend,
Snakes defy, and kites defend.
There, the star-ey'd panther prowls,
And the wolf in hunger howls ;
There, the speckled adder breeds,
And the famish'd eagle feeds,
Spirits prompt them, fiends incite,
They are eager for the fight,
And are thirsting night and day,
On the human heart to prey ;
Touch not then, the sacred lands
Of the yellow isle of sands.
"Tell me red-man ! hunter hoar,
Dweller on 'Chigomme's shore,
Wherefore, bound by spell or wile,
Spirit-guarded is yon isle?
Is there not, embowelled there,
Many a gem of lustre rare?
Glows there not, in hidden mine,
The Literary Voyager
Gems that sparkle, ores that shine?
Beams there not, along the strand,
Glittering mounds of golden sand?
Tell me hunter! can'st thou not.
Guide, me, to the treasur'd spot?
Arms, with Europe's skill prepar'd,
Shall the daring deed reward,
Bands shall deck thee; feathers bless!
And the skill of Albion, dress!
With Columbia's banner'd pride,
And a chieftain's plate beside.
"Listen white-man! moons have past,
Since this earth was all a waste!
Rains had drench'd it, earthquakes rent,
Winds demolished, ages spent;
And the waters black and still,
Slumber'd deep o'er every hill,
And not one ling'ring beam of light,
Hhim'd the vast and moonless night:
'Twas then the Spirit of the sky,
In mercy hung yon lamps on high,
Sun, moon, and stars ! and by their light,
ExpelTd the dread chaotic night;
Then cloth'd he, hills and vales with trees,
And slated bounds to lakes and seas,
Then sent he, birds and beasts in woods,
And fish in all our limpid floods
And creatures small, of foot and wing,
And every living, breathing thing.
Last sent he man! (a barb'rous race;
From whom my long descent I trace)
As lord o'er all; and thus benign,
Address'd the parent of our line:
To thee, I give these smiling woods,
These lofty hills, and peopled floods
Fill'd with all needful game; and blest
No. 8. February 18th 1827
For thy convenience, peace, and rest.
I give thee bow! I give thee spear!
To dart the fish, and fell the deer
I give thee vessel, light, to sweep,
O'er the broad stream, and billowy deep
I give thee skins for thy attire,
To shade thee, leaves; to warm thee, fire!
More need'st thou not, nor covet more,
And peace shall round thee blessings pour.
But touch not gold! the tempter fly!
Or all thy kin shall droop and die
For in that potent poison pent,
Lurk envy, pain, and discontent,
And luxury of lif e the bane,
And woe with all her haggard train.
Listen white man! dreamest thou
My soul could e'er descend so low
To sell my country, life and line
For any frail rewards of thine!
By breaking heaven's supreme commands,
To tread the isle of golden sands:
My fare is scant! my roof is low!
My country cold, and deep my wo!
And every moon that climbs yon hill
Forbodes my race both want and ill;
But scantier still must be my meal,
And keener woes my bosom feel
A sharper winter chill our sky
And louder tempests rage on high
And every limb be rack'd with pain,
And grief consume, ere I complain!
Ere I comprise heaven's decree,
By touching gold, or guiding thee.
"Man of the woods! thy fancies seem,
Like some distemper'd midnight dream,
Wild and devoid of reason. Vain!
The Literary Voyager
Are all thy fears of gold, or gain.
Vain every fear of Indian mood,
That white man, wills them aught but good,
By letters, skill and care,
Toil, temperance, virtue, peace and prayer,
Or seeks by truth's prophetic rod,
Aught, but to bring them back to God.
[Henry R. Schoolcraft]
Albany, Feb. 1821
INDIAN MODE OF RECORDING IDEAS
My attention had been directed to the mode of communicating ideas
possessed by the North American Indians, by means of hieroglyphics,
in the year 1820, while engaged as a member of the expedition or-
ganized that year, to explore the sources of the Mississippi. Separa-
tions of the exploring party, and the detachment of sub parties on
separate routes became necessary, in accomplishing the object, in the
region north west of lake Superior, and it was while on one of these
occasions, while crossing the humid, level summit, between the waters
of the St. Louis, and a contiguous branch of the Mississippi, that a
very striking exhibition of this art was made, by the Indian guide,
who conducted a detached party over that unfrequented table land. 113
I had previously observed limited symbolic inscriptions on the sticks
or posts set up, to denote their graves, on the island of Michilimaci-
nac; and along the shores of lake Superior; but here, was displayed,
on the surface of a smooth sheet of birch bark, a pictorial detail of
the circumstances of our encampment, the number, and character of
the party, the order of the camp, and the number and kind of animals,
or game, which had been killed. The whole was so well arranged, and
the symbols so naturally expressed, that its import, even without the
aid of an interpreter, was quite obvious. And it was executed so
readily by our guides, as to evince their perfect familiarity with the
system. Other evidences of the general acquaintance of the Indians
with this art, were afterwards witnessed. They were generally found
inscribed on bark of the same species, sometimes on the decorticated
side of trees, and, in a few instances, painted on rocks, with native
This art, it was noticed, was not confined to the Ojibways, in whose
No. 8. February 13th 1827
territorial domains, specimens of it, were first observed. On descend-
ing the Mississippi, and reaching the confines of the Dacotah or Sioux
country, the same hieroglyphic system was witnessed. At a point
called by the fur traders La Petite Roche, above the Falls of St.
Anthony, a sheet of bark inscribed with these figures was descried,
suspended from a pole on the brinks of the river. 114 The Indians at-
tached to the expedition, to whom this display created deep interest,
at once, interpreted it, as a pictorial memorial of a visit of the Sioux,
into the Chippewa nation, with an offer of terms of peace.
THE WEASEL AND WOLF
A CHIPPEWA FABLE
There was once a conversation between a weasel and a wolf. Let us
have a union in our families, said the weasel, for I have such feeble
powers of body, that I am always obliged to get things at night and
by stealth, for fear of man, and get but a scanty living after all. Wolf,
you often walk abroad by day, and all men respect your courage and
dexterity. True, replied the Wolf, but if I have strong courage, I have
strong enemies both by night and day. A cousin of mine, told me that
wolves get fine sheep in the south, but in this poor country, we are
lucky if we can catch a lynx or rabbit, and I am often put to my
shifts for a meal, whereas your very feebleness is your protection. Be
satisfied with what you are. You can catch mice, and get grain or
roots. The Creator has tempered our powers and apetites very well,
and you often escape dangers, that would crush me. Man is my worst
enemy, and I am told a price is set on my head. At this moment, the
trap of a hunter, sprang, and the poor wolf was caught by the legs,
while the weasel scampered off.
THE DESERTED INDIAN MAID
The affections of the Indian women are strong. Their love of their
offspring is not surpassed in interest, or intensity by any nation. They
are deeply attached to their friends, families, relatives and tribes. The
following is a free version of a native song of a Chippewa girl, the
original and literal translation of which, was put in our hands.
The Literary Voyager
Ah, when remembrance brings to mind
The youth as brave as he was kind,
Love, hope, and joy alternate start,
And wake a transport in my heart.
And when he bid the sad adieu,
He said "my love I'll go with you."
"I'll go with you," my heart replied,
But on my tongue the answer died.
Alas what grief what pain of mind
I felt when I was left behind.
The kiss he gave oh grief may kill,
Brave youth! but I shall love thee still.
The Literary Voyager
No. 9. Sault Ste. Marie February 16th
SKETCHES OF WESTERN SCENERY
To CHARLES G. HAINES ESQR. N.Y. 115
July 6th 1821
Sir: I comply with your request, by sketching the outlines of a tour,
which has been commenced with some little preparation on my part,
and pursued under the advantages arising from a situation in the
public employment, under a distinguished person 116 who has a perfect
knowledge of the history of the interesting region we are to pass.
Thoughts put to paper in the profoundest depths of the woods, and
by the light of a campfire at night, cannot be expected to possess the
grace of diction, or research which are demanded of the closet student.
It is the facts alone, which are expected to sustain my narration, and
even in presenting these, I shall have nothing to excite amazement,
or produce wonder. If there is any wonder in the West, it is to see
with what facility, forests are felled, prairies cultivated, and towns
erected. The Indian has been often described, and the only wonder he
excites is that he is still wedded to his savage pursuits. To travel
rapidly is our aim. You will not therefore be surprized, if I do not
supply deficiencies in topography, on the natural history of the region
before us. The mission of the western people is to conquer a wilder-
ness, and in this they possess no higher powers than the axe, the saw,
the lever and the water wheel. The gospel is often preached in groves,
which lately re-echoed the Indian yell. Churches and school houses
form the second picture of western settlements.
But, although, I have wonders to describe, like all other travellers
and tourists, since the days of Megesthines, and Marco Polo, I shall
expect you only to see with my eyes, and to hear with my ears, yet, I
must apprize you at the outset that you are not to expect all I see, or
all I hear, or all that any other person placed in my situation, could,
or might see, or hear, but only such particulars, obtruding themselves
to a hasty notice, as I may deem worthy, or find it convenient, to
The Literary Voyager
allude to. With these remarks you will be enabled to follow me in the
journey more understandingly, and I will only add, that I hope you
will not take it ill, if my narrative becomes tiresome, when the
journey was so.
From New York to Buffalo, occupied seven days. Thence to
Detroit, through Lake Erie was a steamboat journey, of two days and
two nights. Owing to unavoidable delay, I did not reach Detroit until
the morning of the day fixed for our departure, and I embarked on
the journey with no better preparations than could be made within
three hours after my arrival. It was at twelve o'clock on the third of
July, when we quitted the landing in front of the mansion house of
Gov. Cass, where a crowd of citizens had assembled to offer us their
best wishes and salutations. The wind blew directly down the straits,
and impelled our buoyant canoe at the rate of eight miles per hour.
We passed rapidly down the channel of the Detroit river, checquered
with its fine islands and highly cultivated shores, and held our course
along the southern banks of lake Erie, but we did not find it con-
venient to effect a landing at any place. Our steerman pointed out to
us, as we passed, the prominent points of land, that jut out into the
lake, with their appropriate names, and the rich alluvial tracts which
border the mouth of the river Raison, celebrated as the scene of the
defeat and massacre of the army of Gen. Winchester in 1813. As we
approached the entrance to Maumee Bay, we could plainly see, on our
left, the cluster of islands, which mark the scene of Perry's victory.
The wind, which blew strongly through the straits, exposed us to a
heavy swell, the moment we entered the lake, and our slender mast
bent under the momently-increasing pressure of the gale, so that we
were soon compelled to reef our little sail, and more than once the
waves broke furiously over our heads, and drenched us to the skin.
But we encouraged our men to proceed, and at eight o'clock in the
evening landed at Port Lawrence, which is at the point where Swan
creek discharges itself into the head of Maumee Bay, being a distance
of about seventy miles from Detroit. We were literally driven like a
ship before the gale. Our mode of conveyance, consists of a birch bark
canoe, such as were employed upon a former occasion, on the tour to
the sources of the Mississippi, paddled by six Canadian voyageurs,
and provided with a square sail. And the party is made up of Gover-
nor Cass, his secretary, myself, and a cook, ten persons in all. Our
No. 9. February 16th
canoe is one of the most beautiful and airy models, expressly pre-
pared and fitted up for the purpose. It carries the national standard
at the stern, to indicate to the Indian tribes the character of the
mission, and is provided with an awning to protect ourselves from the
heat of the sun, at noon, an improvement which has been adopted
from the great inconveniences we suffered for the want of it, during
our passage through lake Superior in 1820. Thus prepared we are to
pass the Maumee and the Wabash, the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the
Illinois, and finally, to dismiss our canoe, at Chicago, on lake Michi-
gan, which is the point of our destination. Major Forsyth, having
occasion to remain one day longer at Detroit, did not embark with us,
but proceeded on horseback, and joined us at Fort Meigs.
Thus Sir, I have detailed to you, our mode of travelling, the num-
ber of our party, and the limits of our route. Expect me only to
continue these sketches, at irregular intervals, and do not entertain
the idea of an unbroken correspondence, with one whose time, is to be
passed, in the language of Chateaubriand "in the depths of the wilder-
ness, and under the huts of the American savages.'*
Such have been indeed, the scenes I have encountered, since leaving
the sylvan shores of lake Dunmore, and the polished circles of Middle-
bury and its collegiate circles, where our friendship commenced. Five
years have passed away since this happy period, and they have been
to me five years of busy, practical experience and instruction in the
realities of life on a vast frontier, where the ambitious, the enter-
prizing, and the unsatisfied are seeking their fortunes, far from the
homes they loved. I have learned to sleep on a prairie, under the open
canopy of heaven, serenaded sometimes, by howling wolves to dine
on grapes or blackberries, if they were fortunately by the way, or on
acorns, if the wild turkies, or bears, had spared them. And in default
of either, to take a drink of spring water to encourage hope.
THE UNCHANGEABLE CHARACTER
OF THE INDIAN MIND
To the traveller who visits the upper lakes for information, to the
man of business who casually passes over them in the pursuit of gain
or to the Christian teacher, who is activated by more exalted motives,
The Literary Voyager
no object presents itself so forcibly to mind, as the impoverished,
feeble, and erratic native tribes. We there observe the moral problem
of a race, who have existed in contact with a people differing from
them in all that constitutes physical and intellectual distinction,
without having embraced, in any visible degree, manners and opinions
urged upon them by the precept and example of centuries, or without
having lost any of the distinguishing traits, which mark them as a
peculiar people. We see the lean and lynx-eyed hunter directing his
stealthy footsteps along the shores of these ample waters, like some
solitary and discontented ghost, wandering over the deserted plains,
where mighty nations once flourished. We see the warrior, smeared
with earthy pigments, and decorated with feathers, treading the
mystic ring of the war dance, and panting for the only species of
honorable distinction, warlike renown, known to his forefathers. We
see the Indian physician, the juggler and the wabeno, practising their
rites, or exercising their skill, and rivetting the attention of their
credulous auditors, or more credulous patients. If we examine the
Indian household, we find the consecrated gus-ki-pe-qa-gun, a medi-
cine sack, containing charmed medicines. If we visit the dwelling of
the sick, we find offerings to an invisible agency of spirits, suspended
from a pole conspicuously placed. And if we go to the graves of the
dead, we observe the idea of materiality throwing its grovelling fetters
around the disembodied soul, in the food deposited upon the grave,
and the implements buried within it. In all this, there is little to dis-
tinguish the Indian of 1827, from the Indian of 1534. They both
exhibit the same patient endurance of human suffering, the same
stoical indifference to pain and hunger, the same passion for warlike
achievement and love of a wild forest independence, which have cost
them so many battles, so many defeats, and so profuse a loss of
numerical force, and territorial sovereignty.
Philanthropy cannot console itself that its efforts to meliorate their
condition have produced any important changes in their mental
habits that it has led them to adopt any new trains of thought, or
more refined and methodical modes of action. Religion has no cause
to exult in the extent of its achievements. Nor can it be said that
Industry has produced results at all corresponding to the efforts she
has made. We are not aware that the Occums, 118 Hendricks, 119 Caloins,
Obookaiahs, 120 and Williams' 121 whom our colleges have sent back to
No. 9. February 16th 18%7
their native tribes, have had the influence to make their people, as a
people, more temperate and moral and pious, than were their ances-
tors. Eliot 122 in 1640, Brainard 123 in 1740, and Kirkland 12 * in 1770
did not certainly, labour in vain. But the tribes are still, "a cake
As respects the mere exterior man, we have effected, all that has
been effected. We have clothed him in a robe of woolens, instead of
skins, and we have put a gun into his hands, and taught him the use
of an explosive mixture, infinitely more prejudicial and destructive to
life, and the means of his subsistence, than the bow and the arrow.
But, with every means and appliance, we have wrought far less
change in the native constitution of his mind, and made far less ad-
vances in his good opinion, than it is consolatory to our pride to
admit. And whenever he has been called on for opinions by which
the conduct of life is regulated, or passion and prejudice governed,
we have found the primeval character essentially unchanged. A single
Pontiac or Tecumseh, has done more to preserve their original man-
ners and customs and modes of thinking and acting, than all the
Sagards 125 and Marquettes, or the Eliots and Brainards who have
occupied the missionary field since the era of the discovery. We do
not mean to underrate the labors either of our own, or foreign mis-
sionaries, or to express any opinion adverse to a work recommended
by noble and exalted sentiments. We refer only to the existing state
of facts, and to a principle in the Indian mind, which has enabled it
to resist intellectual culture, for so long a time, and to so great an
During the time they have been placed in juxtaposition to our
population, they have steadily declined in numbers. They have often
changed their abodes, receding as we advanced, and have passed
through several degrees of longitude. But under every change of posi-
tion, they have manifested a uniform reluctance to agriculture and
the mechanic arts, as modes of subsistence, and a uniform preference
for the chase. Perhaps the general causes of their declension, have
never been placed before them, in a manner better suited to their
comprehension, than they are found, in a reply of Jefferson, to a
delegation of Delawares, Mohegans, and Munsees, in 1808. 126
"The picture which you have drawn, of the increase of our numbers,
and the decrease of yours, is just; the causes are very plain, and the
The Literary Voyager
remedy depends on yourselves alone. You have lived by hunting the
deer and buffalo; as these have been driven westward, you have sold
out on the seaboard, and moved westwardly in pursuit of them. As
they became scarce there, your food has failed you; you have been a
part of every year without food, except the roots and other unwhole-
some things you could find in the forests. Scanty and unwholesome
food produce diseases and death among your children, and hence you
have raised few, and your numbers have decreased. Frequent wars
too, and the abuse of spirituous liquors, have assisted in lessening
"The whites, on the other hand, are in the habit of cultivating the
earth, of raising stocks of cattle, hogs, and other domestic animals, in
much greater numbers than they could kill of deer & buffalo. Having
always a plenty of food and clothing, they raise abundance of chil-
dren, they double their numbers every twenty years. The new swarms
are continually advancing upon the country, like flocks of pigeons,
and so they will continue to do. Now, my children, if we wanted to
diminish our numbers, we could give up the culture of the earth,
pursue the deer and buffalo, and be always at war. This would soon
reduce us, to be as few as you are ; and if you wish to increase your
numbers, you must give up the deer and buffalo, live in peace, and
cultivate the earth. You see then, my children, that it depends on
yourselves alone, to become a numerous and great people."
The frigid apathy with which they appear, thus far, to have con-
templated their fate, may be denominated stoicism or philosophy. But
could any of the descendants of European stocks, have been placed
ha a similar condition, and so long resisted the influence of industrious
example, so long put off the work of reform, and so steadily declined
the task of preparing for the future, we might have found a harsher
epithet to denote the indifference.
Where the pressure of white men, has yet created no demand for
the extensive domain, to which they hold the title of possession,
thousands of acres are held by a few isolated individuals. Populous
villages in the days of the Jesuit fathers, are dwindled to a few
hunters, or fishermen. And whole nations are only recognized by as
many feeble and insignificant bands. Doomed to extinguishment by
some inscrutable fiat, we see the race of aborigines, like the primitive
inhabitants of Canaan, falling before their invaders like grain be-
No. 9. February 16th 1827
neath the scythe, and leaving their rich inheritance "to men of other
minds." Whether the question of their origin, can ever be settled, is
comparatively unimportant. Learning and ingenuity have been em-
ployed in tracing them to the house of Jacob, by proofs, not always
the best of which the subject admits, and by conclusions quite un-
satisfactory; but which, if undisputed, ought to have very little
practical bearing upon the subject. We live under a dispensation, in
which the Jew and the Gentile, "the bond and the free" are alike
subjects of moral and religious cultivation and improvement. That
inscrutable Power, who deemed it suitable to seal the great pro-
pitiary sacrifice, by rending the vail of the temple, from that instant,
recognized the whole human race as coming within the scope of the
faith and promises.
We live in an age favorable to missionary and school efforts, and
under a government tolerant of human rights. Whether we have
acquitted ourselves of our duty towards our aboriginal population, is
a question, momentous in itself, but which we are not prepared to
decide. In the interim of continued experiment, while opinions are
forming and renewed efforts making, it is the dictate of a humane
and liberal spirit to improve every opportunity for acquiring fresh
information, and eliciting new and authentic traits of their character
It has been remarked that the Indians of North America are, to the
inhabitants of this continent, what "the fallen arch, the broken
column and the incrusted medal" are to the philosophers of Europe.
But it may be further remarked, that the study of the former is
enveloped in a more impenetrable mystery, for the base of the arch
itself is gone, the column is shattered into a thousand fragments, and
the medal is without inscription. The study of our Indian history is,
indeed, rather the province of the Menologist & antiquarian than the
historian, and few have probably attempted to investigate the one or
the other, without discovering how little aid is to be gleaned from
authentic books, or learned from the inspection of their monuments.
THE INDIAN RHAPSODIST
The following response to sentiments of "Algonac," was hastily
sketched by one who admires both the thoughts and the livery in
The Literary Voyager
which they appeared. It is placed at the disposal of the editor of the
The lyre the forest minstrel strung,
In strains responsive to his grief
Swell'd full and soft the tide of song,
That bore along the patr'arch chief.
He sung of days forever fled,
He prais'd his nation's prowess more,
He struck the war-notes of the dead,
And drew the bow now strung no more.
He wail'd no white man's happy'r state,
Nor car'd he for the plough or loon;
But deeply mourn'd his nation's fate,
As such, fast gliding to the tomb.
Zina Pitcher 127
We occasionally see a stray individual here, from this remote northern
tribe. Mackenzie informs us that the progress of the Chippewyans is
easterly, and according to their own traditions, they came from
Siberia, "agreeing in dress and manners with the people now found
upon the coast of Asia." 128 Their name of Chippewyan is an Algonquin
word, denoting their being clothed hi fishers skins. They have also a
tradition among them, that they originally came from another coun-
try, inhabited by very wicked people, and had traversed a great lake,
which was narrow, shallow, and full of islands, where they had
suffered great misery, it being always winter, with ice and deep snow.
From individuals of this tribe, who have visited the post, the
Chippewyan language is seen to be radically different from the Algon-
quin. Its vocabulary is however comparatively barren and unculti-
vated. They have, few numerals, and no comparison of nouns.
To MRS. SCHOOLCRAFT
ON THE ANNIVERSARY OF HER BIRTH-DAY
Muse! oh maid of tuneful tongue!
Ever happy, fair, and young;
No. 9. February 16th 1827
Ever fond of sylvan sweets,
And the peace of still retreats-
Timid, lonely, pensive maid!
Grant me now thy wanted aid,
That a wreath I may prepare,
To adorn my plighted fair,
Such as may her brows array,
Deftly on her natal day.
Let there be no gaud or splendor,
Make it simple, modest, tender,
Unaffected, sweet, and kind,
Faithful emblem of her mind:
Gather, on the mountain's side,
Rose-tipt daisies Flora's pride,
Modest, humble, little sweet!
Such as she herself would greet.
Cull the violet's timid head,
From the garden's cultur'd bed;
Lovely flower, of sunny ray,
Ever blooming, sweet and gay:
Bring from out the shelter'd dell,
Tender plant! the blue hare bell;
Seek around the upland close,
For the simple wilding rose:
Search the Shadow-border'd mead,
For the blush-lit, miscodeed
Native flower, of odor sweet,
Lover of the calm retreat.
Let the soft pine's ever green,
In the faithful braid be seen,
Emblem of a faith most true,
When the flower hath lost its hue;
When the breathing spring is past,
And on life we look the last.
Put of cypress one small leaf,
To denote a latent grief,
For the cherub that was given,
But has flown away to heaven.
The Literary Voyager
Let the sweet-grass' shining blade,
Mingle in the tender braid;
Braid it neat, and braid it fine,
Let no prickly leaf entwine,
Nought to mar the tender thread,
Or excite one thought of dread.
Tis complete! Accept it then,
Thou, to whom this verse I bring,
Borne on love's extatic wing!
Wear it, on thy natal morn,
'Twill thy gentle brow adorn;
Wear it as an offering pure,
Of affection ever sure,
Tribute to thy manners chaste,
Virtue, tenderness, and taste,
Without taint and without guise,
Youth's reward, and Hymen's prize.
Sault Ste. Marie, 1826
Mr. John Halket in his Notes on the Indians^ published at London
in 1820, by a studiously advocated theory in despite of fact, con-
trasts the American policy of Indian treatment, with that of France
and England, while ruling here, and as if civilization, letters, and
Christianity were justly chargeable for the wildest disorder of republi-
can institutions, & they could produce nothing else, but barbarism of
manners & theories.
Were not the tribes counselled during the American revolution,
and since, to the highest and best objects of civilization? Did not
Kirkland in 1775 teach the Oneidas Christianity, instead of war and
discord? Were not Skenandoah, Cornplanter, and Farmer's brother,
examples of sound teachings in arts, letters, and politics? Did not
Sagatowa, or Red Jacket with his shrewdness, wit, eloquence and
common sense, rise to eminence under the American conferences,
councils and treaties? 132 Have the just and humane dealings, which
characterize the whole policy of the American government, a proof of
its superior treatment of the Race?
No. 9. February 16th
The people of this nation have a tradition, that their ancestors crossed
the sea. They are the only tribe of the U.S. with which I am ac-
quainted, who admit a foreign origin. Until lately, they kept a yearly
sacrifice, for their safe arrival in this country from the South. From
whence they came, or at what period they arrived in North America,
they do not know. It is a prevailing opinion, among them, that
Florida had once been inhabited by white people, who had the use
of edge tools. Black Hoof (a chief) affirmed that he had often heard
it spoken of, by old people, that stumps of trees covered with earth,
were frequently found, which had been cut down by edged tools.
"It is somewhat doubtful whether the deliverance, which they
celebrated, has any other reference, than to the crossing of some great
river, or an arm of the sea." 133
TECUMSEH, A CAUSE OF INDIAN DEPOPULATION
Among the temporary causes of depopulation, affecting the north
western Indians in modern times, none, since the ravages of the small
pox in 1778, has perhaps had a greater effect, than the influence and
character of Tecumseh, and his brother the Prophet. By addressing
themselves to the prejudices of the Indians, they acquired an influ-
ence over them, which, sustained as it was, by the resources of a
foreign government, was wielded to embody a very large force. This
force could, however, never be completely controlled, nor effectively
employed. A force which served to keep the frontiers in alarm, and
bedizzen the flanks of an army, to whose strength it undoubtedly
added while the British army was operating successfully, but in the
moment of defeat, like elephants trained to battle, they either threw
their own ranks into confusion, or fought on the triumphant side. To
provide for the support of such a description of force, poorly and
partially as they were in fact supported, required no inconsiderable
effort. And when reverses came, the Indians were abandoned to
misery and sufferings in all their complicated shapes. It is computed
by those who participated in the scenes which were witnessed upon
the American frontiers in 1812-14; or immediately followed, that for
one warrior who was killed in battle, ten died of the effects of ex-
posure in bad weather without tents, from scanty or defective pro-
The Literary Voyager
visions, or from diseases induced by leaving their own healthy and
elevated regions, to subsist on salt food, amidst the marshes and low
grounds where they were so much employed.
The efforts made by Tecumseh and his coadjutor, were commenced
as early as 1806, and to the accomplishment of his scheme, he sacri-
ficed eight years of his life in constant and almost unremitted exer-
tions. His views, however enlarged, were impracticable. They
embraced within the plan of an Indian confederacy, the most remote,
as well as contiguous tribes. Unsuccessful at first, he accomplished by
perseverance, by assuming arts of popularity, and by a fortunate
junction of extraneous circumstances, what he could not, otherwise
have effected, a partial union, and effort at concreted action, amongst
the northwestern tribes. In accomplishing this ill joined confederacy
he accomplished in truth, their ruin. They have never since been able
to muster the same physical force, and it is assuming, but little to
add, they never will. The Indian power, in the U.S. expired with him.
The Literary Voyager
No. 11. Saidt Ste. Marie February
To the student of the Indian mind and history, there are materials,
which could be employed to show that this race, has a peculiar myth-
ology. Unlike the Hindoo race they do not personify the great prin-
ciples of nature. They have no Vistno and Siva. Their mental
inventions, represent passions & personal traits and characteristics.
Thus IAGOO is the prince of story-tellers WEENG, is the embodiment
of somnolency; KWASIND of strength, and PAPUCKEWIS of tricks and
harlequinism. PAUGUK, represents Death, JEBI, a ghost. PUKWIADGIN-
INI, a pigmy or fairy. WINDIGO, a giant.
There is another class of creations, which may be called astronomi-
cal, or astrological. The East is personified under the name of WAU-
BUN, the West, KABEAN, the South, SHAWANDASEE, and the North,
For the hills and mountains, they have a class of fairies or little
men, called Ininees. For the lakes and rivers, and cataracts, they have
a class of water-spirits, who perform the office of Naids. And for the
forests and woods, there is a very numerous class of vocal spirits and
All these are entirely distinct in their offices, and powers, from the
Great Spirit, the Monedo, the Ozeaud and the Master of Life. There
is, indeed, reason to conclude that spiritual life exists in these great
classes. I. The Deity, residing in the upper space, or blue firmament.
II. Agents who dwell in the air. Ill, Terrestrial spirits, who occupy
the surface of the earth.
There are usually, two storms, of wind and drifting snow, which the
Indians distinctly notice in the month of March about the time of
the vernal equinox. Sometimes the latter of these storms does not take
place until the beginning of April. During such weather it is common
for one of the group, who are nestled in the lodge, to observe "Ah!
Papuckewis is now gathering his harvest," and this immediately puts
The Literary Voyager
the whole circle into the best humor, although perhaps the moment
before, they were suffering from cold and hunger. This myth is
founded upon the following story.
In old times, during a long and severe winter, Papuckewis and his
family were upon the point of starving. Every resource seemed to
have failed. He could no longer procure fish from the lake, and the
severity of the season had driven the Cariboo into the remotest re-
cesses of the interior. He was travelling along the bleak and ice-
bound shores of the Great Water, 134 where the autumnal winds had
piled up the ice into high pinnacles resembling castles. "I know,"
said he to his family, "that there are spirits of Cabebonoca (which is
the North) residing in those icy castles, and I will solicit their pity."
He did so, with all ceremony. His petition was not disregarded, and
they told him to fill his sacks with ice and snow, and to pass on
towards his cottage, without looking back, until he came to a certain
hill, and there to drop his sacks and leave them until morning, when
he would find them filled with fish. But they cautioned him, that he
must by no means look back, altho' he would hear a great many voices
crying out "Thief! Thief!" as he went along, for it was nothing but
the wind sighing among the branches of the trees. He, however,
strictly obeyed the injunctions of the Spirits, and was rewarded ac-
cording to their promise.
It chanced that Manabozho, who is often the subject of ridicule,
came to visit him, on the day that he had brought home his sacks of
fish, and he was invited to partake of a feast which Papuckewis
ordered to be prepared for the occasion. But while they were partak-
ing of the feast, the guest could not resist the desire he felt to ask his
entertainer, by what fortunate means he had procured such an
abundance of food, at a time when they were all in a state of
Papuckewis frankly imparted to him the secret, and the precau-
tions which were necessary to ensure success, which the other deter-
mined to profit by, as soon as he should return to his lodge. But the
ever active and inquisitive disposition of Manabozho rendered his
attempt vain, and brought upon him the displeasure of the spirits of
Cabebonoca. As he ran along with his sacks of ice and snow, he
continually heard "Thief! Thief!" vociferated in his ears. "He has
stolen fish from Cabebonoca" cried one. "Catch him! catch him!"
No. 11. February
cried another. "Muckumick! muckumick! muckumick," 135 cried a
third. In fine, his ears were so assailed by these continued cries, that
he could not avoid turning his head to see who it was, that uttered
these opprobrious epithets.
But the charm was dissolved, his sacks, when examined the next
morning, contained nothing but ice and snow. And the spirits as a
punishment for his curiosity, condemned him every year, during the
month of March to run about over the hills with his bags of ice and
snow upon his back, the cries of thief! thief! stop him! stop him!
Muckumick I muckumick! still following him. 136
MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE CnippEWAS 137
In the feasts we have described, the company is as general, with re-
gard to the rank, age or standing of the guests, as the most unlimited
equality of rights, and the broadest principles of good feeling, can
make it. All the aged, and many of the young are invited.
There is, however, another feast instituted at certain times during
the season, to which young persons only, are invited, except the enter-
tainer and his wife, and, generally, two other aged persons, who
preside at the feast, and administer its rites.
The object of this juvenile feast seems to be instruction, to which
the young and thoughtless are induced to listen, for the anticipated
pleasure of the feast. When the meats are ready, the entertainer if he
be fluent of speech, if not, some person whom he has invited for that
purpose, gets up, and addresses the youth of both sexes, on the sub-
ject of their course through life. He admonishes them to be attentive
and respectful to the aged, and adhere to their counsel; to obey their
parents; never to scoff at the decrepit or deformed; to be modest in
their conduct; to be charitable and hospitable; and to fear and love
the Great Spirit, who is the giver of life, and of every good gift.
These precepts are dwelt upon at great length, and generally en-
forced by examples of a good man and woman, and a bad man and
woman, and after drawing the latter it is customary to say "You
will be like one of these." At the end of every sentence, the listeners
make a general cry of haa!
When the advice is finished, an address to the Great Spirit is
The Literary Voyager
made, in which he is thanked for the food before them, and for the
continuance of life. The speaker then says, turning to the guests,
"Thus the Great Spirit supplies us with food; let your course through
life be always right, and you will ever be thus beautifully supplied."
The feast then commences, and the elders relax their manner a little,
and mix with the rest; but are still careful to preserve order, and a
decent respectful behavior.
Let it not be supposed, however, that the Indian's life, while on his
wintering grounds, is a round of feasting. Quite the contrary. His
feasts are often followed by long and painful fasts, and the severity of
the seasons and scarcity of game and fish often reduce him, and his
family to starvation, and even death. When the failure of game, or
any causes, induce the hunter to remove to a new circle of country,
the labor of the removal falls upon the female part of the family. The
lodge, utensils, and fixtures of every kind, are borne upon the women's
backs, sustained by a leather strap around the forehead. On reaching
the intended place of encampment, the snow is cleared away the
lodge set up cedar boughs brought and spread for a floor the
moveables stowed away wood collected and a fire built. And then,
and not until then, can the females sit down and warm their feet and
dry their moccasins. If there be any provisions, a supper is cooked;
if there be none, all studiously strive to conceal the exhibition of the
least concern on this account; and seek to divert their thoughts by
conversation quite foreign to the subject. The little children are the
only part of the family who complain, and who are privileged to
complain, but even they are taught at an early age to suffer and be
silent. Generally, something is reserved by the mother, when food
becomes scarce, to satisfy their clamors; and they are satisfied with
On such occasions, if the family have gone supperless to rest, the
father and elder sons, rise early in search of game. If one has the
luck to kill even a partridge or squirrel, it is immediately carried
to the lodge cooked, and divided into as many parts as there are
members of the family. In such emergencies, the elder ones, often
make a merit of relinquishing their portion to the women and
If nothing rewards the search, the whole day is spent by the father
upon his snow-shoes, with his gun in his hands, and he returns at
No. 11. February
night fatigued, to his couch of cedar branches, or rush mats. But he
does not return to complain, either of his fatigue, or his want of
success. On the following day, the same routine is observed, and days
and weeks are often thus consumed, without being rewarded with
food sufficient to keep the body in a vigorous or healthy state. In-
stances have been perfectly well authenticated where this state of
wretchedness has been endured by the head of a family, until he has
become so weak as to fall in his path, and freeze to death.
When all other means of sustaining life are gone, the skins the
hunter has collected to pay his credits, or purchase new supplies of
clothing and ammunition, are eaten. They are prepared by removing
the pelt, and roasting the skin until it acquires a certain degree of
Under all this suffering, the pipe of the hunter, is his chief solace,
and it is a solace very often repeated. Smoking parties are sometimes
formed, when there exists a scarcity of food the want of provisions
not tending, as might be supposed, to destroy social feeling and
render the temper sour. On these occasions, the person soliciting
company sends a message to this effect. "My friend, come and smoke
with me. I have no food, but I have tobacco; and we can pass the
evening very well with this."
All acknowledge their lives to be in the hands of the Great Spirit
feel a conviction that all comes from him that he loves them and
that although he allows them to suffer, he will again supply them.
This tends to quiet their apprehensions. Fatalists as to good and ill,
they submit patiently and silently to what they believe their destiny.
When hunger and misery is past, it is soon forgotten; and their minds
are too eagerly intent on the enjoyment of the present good, to feel
any depression of spirits from the recollection of misery past, or the
anticipation of misery to come. No people are more easy, or less
clamorous under sufferings of the deepest dye, and none are more
happy, or more prone to evince their happiness, when prosperous in
(The foregoing facts and conclusions have been taken down, from
conversations recently held with Indians with whom we are well
acquainted whose confidence we think, we have fully acquired, and
whose statements we can safely credit.)
The Literary Voyager
ORIGIN OF THE MiscoDEED 138
MAID OF TAQUIMENON
The daughter of Ma Mongazida, was the pride of her parents, and
their only child. Beauty sat upon her lips, and life and animation
marked all her motions. Fourteen summers had witnessed the growth
of her stature, and the unfolding of her charms, and each spring, as it
came around, had beheld her, in her happy simplicity, revelling amid
the wild flowers of her native valley. There was no valley so sweet as
the valley of Taquimenon [Tahquamenon]. There, she listened to the
earliest notes of the wild birds, who returned from the south, to en-
liven the forests after the repose of winter; and there, also, she had
prepared her bower of branches, and fasted to obtain a guardian
spirit, to conduct her through life, according to the belief and customs
of her people. Sweet valley of the Taquimenon, thou didst bless her
with the charms of thy fragrance, causing the most profound sensa-
tions of pleasure. There, she first beheld that little angel, who in the
shape of a small white bird, of purest plumage, assumed to be her
guardian spirit, in cot and wood, through sun and storm, for the
remainder of her days. Happy were her slumbers in this delightful
visitation, and happy her awakening, as she hasted back, with fawn-
like fleetness, to her parents lodge, with one more charm one more
pleasing recollection one more tie to bind her fancy and her heart
to the sweet valley of the Taquimenon. Beautiful valley of soft
repose! there, she had first learned to know the sweet face of nature,
and seen the river leap & laugh in foam, from the rocks, and then
pursue its sylvan course through the green leafed forest. Sweet en-
thusiast of nature! wild gazer of the woods! There, too, were the
sacred graves of her forefathers, and there, she hoped, when the
Great Spirit should summon her to depart, her friends would lay her
simply bark-enchased body, under the shady foliage in a spot she
It was early in the Strawberry Moon. 139 The white coat of winter
was remembered for its having lingered on many spots, which were
secluded from the sun's influence. But the flowers of the forest were
now in bloom, and the birds had re-visited the valley. There was a
soft and balmy air, and life and animation seemed to be newly
No. 11. February 1827
bestowed upon the whole face of the earth. The robin and the
mamaitwa came back to sing, and the murmuring of waters, in the
little glens and by-vallies, rose, like pleasing music on the ear, and
denoted the time for the opening of buds, and the springing of
flowers. Never, had the scene appeared more attractive to her eye.
"Oh," she exclaimed, "that it were ever spring! that I could ever live
and revel in the wild beauties of my native valley the sweet valley
of the Taquimenon."
But while all nature rejoiced, there was a deep gloom gathering over
the brows of Ma Mongazida. 140 Whispers of the sign of an enemy on
the lofty shores of the Pictured Rocks, had reached his ears. He
thought of the haughty air of the audacious tribe of the Outagamies,
who, but a few moons before, invaded the country, and had been
baffled in their design. He thought of the bitter feuds of the border
bands, yet pleased himself in his own seclusion far from the war path
of the enemy, where, for the space of fifteen winters, there had not a
hostile footprint been seen. While he lay on his couch, pondering on
these things, sleep ensued, and he fancied himself to be the leader of
a hostile band, who broke from the ambush, at the earliest dawn,
and carried death and desolation to a slumbering village. Shocked at
the catastrophe, he awoke. The dream alarmed him. He remembered
that birds of ill omen had crossed his path, the day before.
"Had it been my enemies, the Dacotahs," said he to his wife, "I
should have feared no evil, but to dream of raising the war club
against the Outagamies my own blood kindred, and with whom we
have been long in peace, bodes me sure disaster. Some hostile foot is,
even now, on the track. Some evil bird has flown over my lodge. I
will no longer abide here. Had I sons to stand by my side, most freely
would I meet the foe; but, single-handed, with no one but thee, to
bury me, if I am slain, and my tender Miscodeed to witness my fall,
and become their prey, it were madness to abide. And this day, even
before the sun is at the zenith, will I quit the peaceful valley I love
the sweet valley of the Taquimenon."
In haste, they took their morning's meal, and made their prepara-
tions to leave a scene, so loved and cherished, but loved and cherished
by none, more than the gentle and enthusiastic Miscodeed. She was
indeed a precious wild flower. But while they yet sat around their
lodge-fire, the instinctive sagacity of that trusty friend of the Red
The Literary Voyager
Hunter, the household dog, betokened approaching evil, at first, by
restlessness and low murmurs, and then breaking into a loud bark, as
he flew out of the door. It was a daring war party of the treacherous
Mendawakantons 141 from the Mississippi. A volley of arrows followed,
piercing the thin barks, which hung, like tapestry, around the lodge,
and sealing in death at the same instant, the lips of both father and
mother. "Oh, bird of my dreams," cried Miscodeed, "my beautiful
white wing! my angel of promise! save me from the hands of my
cruel enemies." So saying, she sunk, lifeless to the ground.
With loud yells and rapid footsteps the foe entered. Conspicuous,
in front, stood the eldest son of a warrior, who had been killed by the
Chippewas in the great battle of the falls of the river St. Croix. His
brows were painted red, and his spear poised. But the work of death
was soon finished. There lay, motionless, the husband and the wife
alike beyond the influence of hope or fear, hate or harm. But no other
human form appeared, and the eye of the savage leader rolled in
disappointment around, as he viewed the spot where Miscodeed, his
meditated victim, had sunk into the earth. A small and beautiful
white bird, was seen to fly from the top of the lodge. It was the
guardian spirit of Miscodeed. The knife and the tomahawk were
cheated of their prey her guardian angel had saved her from being
the slave of her enemy.
But the sanguinary rites of war were quickly performed ; the scalps
of the hunter and his wife, were torn away, and with hurry & fear,
the enemy was soon on his way to his native land. When the friends
of the slaughtered family, visited the silent lodge, where welcome had
so often greeted them, all they saw on the ground where the maid of
Taquimenon had fallen, was a modest little white flower, bordered
with pink border which was at once destined to be her emblem.
The influence of geographical names on the literary character of
history, is important and abiding; and, so far as we are indebted, in
this respect, to the Aborigines, the subject forms a point of curious
research. We have not yet passed out of the era for ascertaining and
fixing the meaning and origin of many of these names, even in the
Atlantic states, while, in the great area of the West, fuller means for
tfo. 11. February 1827
the prosecution of such an inquiry exists. And it may be doubted
whether there be any topic of mere taste, or propriety, to which,
there is one sense, so little, and in another, so much interest attached.
Connected with this subject, is the question of the bestowal of
names upon new towns, countries, villages, or residences, and the
avoidance, in so doing, of the further repetition of foreign names
already in use. The descriptive and sonorous character of the native
languages, fit them in a peculiar manner, for this use; and it is be-
lieved, that, with proper means, a system of terse and appropriate
aboriginal names, could be prepared, and the geographical nomencla-
ture of the country, could be thus improved.
There is nothing in the geography of America, which impresses the
observer more than the Indian names. The word America itself, could
not have been more agreeable to poetic ears; nor, if the term were
restricted to the area of the United States, could we have secured a
more desirable name. But the Mexicans, the Cubans and the South
Americans, come in for a share of advantage. I shall hereafter, beg
for some further notice of this subject in your paper. 142
LANGUAGE LINKS MANKIND IN FAMILIES
Were English history, struck out of existence, from the landing of
Julius Caesar to the present day, we could clearly and conclusively
prove, that the English language, is derived from the great Indo-
Germanic family and that at certain periods, there were large in-
fusions of Teutonic French, Latins, Scandinavians &c. Words by fix-
ing sounds, are a kind of medals. But if language is so important, in
tracing the chain of the history of civilized nations, who have the
use of letters, it is also important, is it not, to trace the former con-
nections of savage nations, who lack all letters. They still have their
chartography, and hieroglyphics.
The physical characteristic of races, is inferred from their features,
color, stature &c. and craniological structure and its given formulas
for comparing the intellect of races. Bloomenbach, Pritchard and
others, deem this as one of the most important means of comparison.
But I doubt, whether the sounds of the human voice, be not more
permanent and reliable, than the color of a man's skin, or the shape
of his face, the length of his arms, or the prominence of his cheek
The Literary Voyager
Know ye the land to the emigrant's dear,
Where the wild flower is blooming one half of the year;
Where the dark-eyed chiefs of the native race,
Still meet in the council, & pant in the chase ;
Where armies have rallied by day and by night,
To strike or repel, to "surrender" or fight.
Know ye the land of the billow and breeze
That is pois'd, like an isle 3 & fresh water seas
Whose forests are ample, -whose prairies are fine
Whose soil is productive, whose climate benign;
Remote from extremes neither torrid nor cold,
'Tis the land of the sickle, the plough, & the fold
'Tis a region no eye e'er forgets or mistakes,
'Tis the land for improvement the land of the lakes.
Ye statesman who mingle in Congress debates
Who give laws to new lands, & give lands to new states
Who measure state justice & curb public fires,
And fix bounds to all things except your own ires,
Come view this wide region 'tis yours to declare
The frowns it has witnessed, the smiles it shall share.
Oh who can forget the black tale of its woes
While its lands are still dyed But a truce to our foes,
We leave them to prosper in fetters or free,
As heaven may order, or monarch's decree.
To you then I turn and I turn without fears,
Ye hardy explorers, ye bold pioneers,
Ye votaries of Ceres with industry blest,
Whose hopes are still high, & -whose course is still west.
Ye men of New England ye emigrant race,
Who meditate change, & are scanning the place,
Who dig and who delve on estates not your own,
Where an acre of land is an acre of stone,
Oh quit your cold townships of granite or brakes,
And hie with delight to the land of the lakes.
No. 11. February 1827
This land is so varied, so fertile, so fair
So few can excel it, so few can compare,
That turn where we will, & object as we may
That here is too little, & there too much day,
That prairies are weary to view or to toil,
And covered with blue-joint instead of trefoil.
That vales do not sink, & that hills do not rise,
These down to the centre, those up to the skies.
Yet tell me ye judges of prairie and hill,
What country so perfect, it wants nothing still?
Our streams are the clearest that nature supplies,
And Italy's beauties are marked in our skies
The zephyrs that blow from the balmy south west,
Fall soft as the sighs of the Indian God's 143 breast.
Our woodlands are filled with rare plants & sweet flowers,
Of exquisite beauty and exquisite powers
And the isle-spotted lakes that encircle our plains,
Are the largest & purest this planet contains.
And talk as ye may talk of countries & wealth,
This land is the country of vigor and health.
come then, ye woodsmen, wherever ye harbor,
Our motto is "tandem fit surcules arbor"
July 8th 1824 D
A Fox Indian told Lt. Z. M. Pike, in 1806, that he did not believe in
a future state, but that he believed they were all destined to be
drowned, by water, at a future time. Pike says that this opinion was
not concurred in by the Fox nation generally. 144
The Literary Voyager
No. IS. SauLt Ste. Marie March 2nd 18%7
SKETCHES OF WESTERN SCENERY
No. 3 146
To CHARLES G. HAINES ESQR. N. Y.
The Wabash is one of the most beautiful, fertile and noble rivers of
the West. Originating in a sylvan country of hills and dales, forests
and prairies, its current is swelled by numerous tributaries, on the
right and left all clear crystal streams, which, as they wind their
way south, unfold districts of the country, of unsurpassed fertility
and loveliness. In this manner it is joined by the Wea, the Mississini-
way, the Tippecanoe, the White river, and a hundred minor streams,
minor only for size, but equal attractiveness of aspect, and sylvan
beauty of border. In this broad and attractive valley, dwelt the
Miamies and their cognate tribes, who chased the deer and the elk
on its plains; displayed their nets in its waters, and trapped the
beaver and otter, whose precious skins, formed the desire of foreign
merchants. In some districts, this river washes monument banks of
rock, as at Merom, where elevations command extreme views of its
channel. In others, green forests are still permitted to grace its sides.
The swan, duck and other wild fowl, play on its broad, and still
reaches. In some localities its waters invade and undermine the large
mounds which stood on its sides, as at the Bone Banks. It is the only
large river of the West, whose channel is not interrupted by a cataract.
Even its rapids are few, and easily surmounted.
It was in the richest part of this valley, where it passes through an
unsurpassed range of prairie land, that the French, at the close of the
16th century founded their earliest settlement of Vincennes. Accumu-
lating volume, at every tributary, this broad and fertile river reaches
the Ohio, at a point, which renders it questionable, whether it be not
the primary stream. Hence, old maps, continue the name of Wabash,
to its junction with the Mississippi. The meaning of the name is lost
in the involutions of the Algonquin language. To those best ac-
No. IS. March end 1887
quainted with the idiom, it appears to denote a moving White Cloud,
a name, which presupposes its forest application to some forgotten
Indian hero, who occupied its banks.
The Literary Voyager
No. 13. Sault Ste. Marie March 10th 1827
LAMENT FOR THE RACE
St. Mary's falls run swift & strong, & ever as on they go,
The waves from shore to shore prolong, a hollow sound of woe.
That sound upon mine ear doth write, the note of my tribe's decay ;
That, like a murmuring stream by night, is rapidly passing away.
The storm that o'er it hangs, is black, & gathering still apace,
And in its cold unpitying track, shall sweep away my race,
They sink, they pass, they fly, they go, like a vapor at morning dawn,
Or a flash of light, whose vivid glow, is seen, admir'd, & gone.
But who their martial deeds shall sing, who wake the funeral song,
Or dancing round the magic ring, each choral shout prolong;
There were there were, but they lie low, & nevermore shall spring,
To wield the lance, or bend the bow, to revel, fight or sing.
They died; but if a red-man bleeds, & fills the dreamless grave,
Shall none repeat his name his deeds, nor tell that he was brave;
Tho' polish'd not, my falling line, in quiet temp'rance grew,
And glory, pity, love divine, and many a virtue knew.
And they were free, & they were bold, & they had hearts could feel,
And laugh'd at hunger, pain & cold, nor fear'd the freeman's steel
Farewell! and ye my native words, repeat this simple verse,
Waft far the strain, ye limpid floods, ye vocal shores rehearse.
Dear native groves & hills & streams, my father's land & mine,
Tho' sunk our own, there still are gleams, that on my bosom shine,
Cold as ye are, with boreal chills, where lux'ry never smiles,
More sweet to me thy fir-clad hills, than India's sunny isles.
'Tis peace that gives a nation rest, 'tis virtue keeps it free,
These still were ours, had heaven blest, or Colon sunk at sea;
No. 13. March 10th 1827
Oh I could tell but it is vain, & weep but there's a vow,
My tribe scorn'd ever to complain, & I disdain it now. 148
THE FUR TRADE
No. 2 149
The regions upon which this extensive commerce is spread, embraces
portions of country, in which the civil jurisdiction of our government
is complete, as well as vast portions where the Indian title is yet un-
extinguished, and where the laws regulating trade and intercourse
with the Indian tribes only operate. It will readily occur, that in a
trade which is conducted at such remote places, some salutary regula-
tions would be requisite, as well to secure the trader from the unlaw-
ful exactions of the Indians. The former object is provided for, by
excluding the sale or gift of ardent spirits to Indians, so that they
may remain sober and exercise their native shrewdness in making
their bargains. Regularity in the trade is provided for by requiring
the whole trade to be conducted under licenses from government,
whose authority it will always be the interest of the Indians to
The attention of our government was directed at an early day to
this point, and several laws for the better government and regulation
of the trade, have been from time to time enacted, containing salutary
provisions. To this end the Indian territory had been divided into
convenient districts, and an agent is appointed to reside in each, whose
duty it is to enforce the provisions of the laws, and to scrutinize the
conduct of traders. Every trader previously to entering the Indian
country, is required to file bonds, under suitable penalties, with
But while these laudable efforts are made at Washington, the wits
of the traders on the frontiers, are stimulated to frustrate the agents.
The latter are so few that the Indian country, cannot be closely
watched. It is the interest of fifty to one to break the laws, where
there is but one to enforce it. Do what the Agents can, it is impos-
sible to keep a strict watch, and we must content ourselves to propor-
tion our exertions, to enforce wholesome laws in the nation that
interest, duplicity, and daring endeavor to break them.
Indian agents, in the Indian country, are very much in the condi-
The Literary Voyager
tion of cats, in a certain place, without claws. They are expected to
keep the public cellar dear of rats and mice, without that important
means. If the military are referred to, they can do but little con-
sistently with the higher duties of the "public service." If the local
courts are invited to interfere, alas they are mostly, particeps criminis.
PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY
It is not our object to go into any critical examination of works,
which are well known to our readers, and upon which the voice of
contemporary writers has long past. Nor shall we stop to inquire into
the comparative merits of Chastelloux 150 & Volney, 151 and Chateau-
briand 152 travellers of the same country with the lately reinstituted
order of Jesuits, but of a different age, and different stamp. It will be
sufficient for our purpose, if we show, that previous to our separation
from the mother country, & even up to our own times, we have been
indebted, almost exclusively to foreign sources for our information of
the transmontaine regions; and that neither as colonies, nor as a
separate nation, had we acquitted our duty to ourselves, by furthering
the great work of useful discovery.
The public mind, either seemed satisfied with the reports of
missionaries and traders, or was not roused to a proper sense of the
importance of the subject, until the elevation of Mr. Jefferson to the
Presidential chair in 1800. That acute observer of nature, set on foot
separate expeditions for exploring the courses of the Missouri and the
Oregon, the Mississippi and the Arkansas. The result of these ex-
aminations was given to the public in the expeditions of Lewis and
Clark, and in those of Lieut. Pike. At the same time a partial im-
pulse was given to private enterprize, and we are dedicated to the
decade and following this era, for the "views of Louisiana/' by
Brackenridge, 153 and the "Historical Sketches" of Stoddard. 154
Here the public attention again relapsed. Our citizens appeared
still too busy with the great and pressing realities of commerce and
politics, to permit their taking any permanent interest in the success
of projects of remote or doubtful advantage. To amass wealth was
one thing, and to promote discovery another, and it is inferable, from
2Vo. IS. March 10th 1S27
a review of the state of public feeling, that even the volumes of
Lewis and Clark, were rather admired, than appreciated.
No further interest appears to have been excited towards the
progress of exploration, until the termination of the late war of 1812.
Various causes tended to accelerate emigration towards the west. The
demand for information from that quarter was urgent throughout the
whole tier of the Atlantic States, and everything in the shape of
personal observations, was eagerly purchased, and eagerly read. The
supply was soon adequate to the demand. But the market for books,
like the market for corn, is readily glutted. A sickly growth of produc-
tions was engendered, and of the numerous "gazetteers" and "jour-
nals" and "tours" and "travels," which flowed in upon the public, we
do not recollect, any, after the mention of Drake's Picture of Cin-
cinnati, 155 and Darby's "Louisiana," 156 which deserves to be recalled
from that oblivion into which this class of productions has already
The commencement of 1818 marked a new era in the labor of dis-
covery in our western country. During this, and the following year,
the strong desire of making discoveries in the botany and mineralogy
of the western country, and their kindred topics, allured several in-
dividuals to travel in those regions, upon private resources. The result
of this impulse, is perhaps, sufficiently comprehended, in Nuttal's
"Travels in Arkansas," 157 and Schoolcraft's on Missouri. 158 But a
more considerable effort was made. Mr. Calhoun, acting on the policy
which had been introduced and sanctioned by Jefferson, ordered a
detachment of troops to ascend the Missouri and take post on the
Yellow Stone and on the Mississippi to St. Anthony's falls, with a
view, in part, to cover the observations of the topographical engineers,
and naturalists, who were dispatched to examine and report upon the
natural features and productions of these imperfectly known regions.
This design, although partially frustrated by the refusal of Congress
to appropriate the necessary funds, were carried out, with reputation,
by the military arm. 159
Such was the state of our information, and the means taken for
extending it, in 1819. In the autumn of this year Gov. Cass of
Michigan, originated an expedition, under the patronage of govern-
ment, for exploring the regions north and west from Detroit, extend-
ing through the Upper Lakes to the sources of the Mississippi. The
The Literary Voyager
results of this important exploration, extended our geographical and
topographical knowledge over rive degrees of north latitude, north of
Detroit. By it, we received our first scientific contributions to geology,
mineralogy, botany, and zoology. A vast field of agricultural and
commercial riches was explored, extending from the sources of the
river, as low down, as the influx of the Wisconsin. The northern lakes
were entirely circumnavigated and surveyed. Public attention, was
strongly called to the value of these wide and neglected lands of the
public domain. No prior exploration, since Lewis and Clark had
given such an impetus to the expectations of the nation, and its ex-
tension west. 160
THE STRONG MAN OF KEWEENA
This chief resides at Keweena bay, or as it is called by the French,
L'Ance, in lake Superior; where his father, and grandfather lived
before him. He traces his claims to the chieftainship of his band no
farther back than to his great grandfather, who received a flag from
the French government.
His father's name was Augussawa. He was killed by the Sioux, at
the age of about SO, leaving six sons, of whom Gitshee laubance, was
next to the youngest. He was about ten years old when his father fell.
When about 18, he joined, as a volunteer, a war party against the
Sioux and Outagamies. This party consisted of 300 men, from the
different villages on the shores of the lake. It was headed by Waub
Ojeeg, aided by Nawondego, and Wabekonjeewona. On the portage
of the Great Falls of the St. Croix, they encountered the Sioux and
Foxes, rather unexpectedly the latter having also set out in quest
of the Chippewas. The fight continued all day, when both parties
retired. Many persons were killed, and many scalps taken on both
sides; but the Chippewas claimed the victory; and the Sioux have
never since ventured to meet them in much force, in the woods. It
also put an end to the Outagami war, being the last engagement in
which that tribe appeared against the Chippewas. This battle, by far
the most important event related in the modern traditions of the
Chippewas, appears to have been fought in 1763.
No. 13. March 10th 1827
Gitshee laubance has been in three war parties at subsequent
periods, by none of which, however, was much effected against the
enemy. He has always enjoyed the reputation of being an expert
hunter, and, what next to courage is most applauded by the Indians,
of possessing great personal strength. There can be no doubt, from
the concurrent testimony of traders and Indians, but he has been for
many years, and is still decidedly the strongest man in the Chippewa
Nation. It is in fact, upon his strength and prowess, that his fame
and authority as a chief, is principally founded.
As a hunter few have ever surpassed him. During the winter and
spring of 1806, he killed with his own hands three hundred beavers
at the post of L'Ance. Beaver was worth in that year, from $3.50 to
$4. per pound. Estimating each beaver to weigh only one pound, and
taking the minimum price, his winter's hunt must have procured him
goods to the value of $1,050 a sum more than amply sufficient to
support himself and family in affluence.
At this time, with every exertion, he cannot take over fifty beavers
during the year, and the whole amount of his hunt, including small
furs of every description, does not exceed a pack and a half, worth
perhaps, two hundred and fifty, or three hundred dollars. 101
Gitshee laubance has six sons, all men grown, neither of whom,
however, promises to equal the father in activity, strength, or influ-
ence in his band. The aggregate hunt of these six sons, does not
usually exceed that of the father alone. The sixth and last son, is his
favorite, and gives promise of making the most active hunter, and
the best man. His name is Neezakapenas, or the single bird. This
son, who is frequently still addressed by his infant name of Penasee,
is designated to inherit his father's honors.
Many instances of the personal strenth of Gitshee laubance, are
related. In the month of February 1808, he killed a buck moose of
three years old, weighing between 400 and 500 pounds. The snow,
at this time, was deep, and so soft, from the effects of a partial thaw,
that the snow shoe sank into it, at every step. After cutting up the
animal, and draining out the blood, he wrapped the whole in its hide,
and stooping down, placed himself under the load. He then rose up.
Finding his strength equal to the task, he then took a litter of nine
pups in a blanket upon his right arm, placed his wallet containing a
blanket, etc. upon the top of the meat, and putting his gun upon the
The Literary Voyager
left shoulder, walked off, with a firm step, sinking deep in the partially
melted snow at every stride. He travelled six miles with this enormous
burden. It required John Holliday, on whose authority this statement
is made, and three Canadians, to carry another moose, somewhat
larger, the same distance. But neither of these men, on trial, could
raise the burden of Gitshee laubance from the ground.
The dread of his strength, and infuriated passion, led some of the
earlier traders, to comply with his unreasonable demands for liquor,
when he no longer possessed the means of purchasing it. This demand
was refused by Mr. [John] Johnston in 1793, who finding nothing
would satisfy the audacious savage, while he had any thing remain-
ing, ordered his messenger from the tent. Gitshee laubance, irritated
by the refusal, and mad from the effects of previous drinking, seized
his weapons to avenge the insult, for in this light he was accustomed
to consider every refusal of this kind. Mr. Johnston placing his
sword and loaded pistols before him, threatened the life of any
Indian who should enter his tent in a hostile manner. His men, being
Canadians, fled and secreted themselves in the woods. In this perilous
situation, while they were in the act of coming to blows, a sudden
storm of rain and wind arose, attended with severe claps of thunder.
The Indian was appalled. "Englishman," he exclaimed, "put tobacco
in the fire! Your God is stronger than mine." "No!" replied Mr. J.
"put you[r] tobacco in the fire. I have full confidence in my God. It is
against you that his anger is excited." At such imminent risks, was
this trade formerly conducted.
Born during the latter years of British supremacy in the American
colonies, and continuing in habits of intercourse with the Agents of
that government in the Canadas, until a recent period, his political
partialities were naturally moulded that way. Since the American
government has advanced a post to the foot of lake Superior, and
thereby insured protection to the Indians living south and west of
the national boundary, he had ceased visiting foreign Agents, and
both by his professions and conduct, has evinced a uniform reliance
upon, and attachment to, our government. He has been a constant
visitor at the Agency of St. Mary, from its establishment in 1822, and
has received from this office a chief's flag and medal of the largest
dass. In the summer of 1823 he surrendered a flag, formerly received
from the Agents of the Indian department in the Canadas, as an
No. 13. March 10th 1887
evidence that his visits to them, were terminated: and on returning
to his village at Keweena bay, hoisted the American ensign in its
stead. This step was unpopular with the majority of his band, and
caused considerable excitement. His determination once taken, was
not however, to be moved, and as no Indian of that band, possessed
sufficient influence openly to oppose him, a tacit acquiescience to his
course, had taken place; and his influence at this moment, is as
great as at any former period.
SKETCHES OF WESTERN SCENERY 162
To CHARLES G. HAINES ESQR. N.Y.
The Mississippi river may be compared to the trunk of one of those
gigantic trees, on the Pacific shores, or the waters of the Ganges,
which have innumerable branches, some of which rival and almost
surpass the parent stem. I have called your attention to the sylvan
shores and forests of the Miami of the Lakes, and to the long winding
and swelling evolutions of the Wabash, unparalled in length, majesty,
and natural exuberance and fertility. In calling your attention to so
immense a region as the Mississippi valley, bounded in a geological
view, by the Appalachian and Rocky Mountain chains, I shall pre-
serve no order of strict topographical sequence, but skip from valley
to valley, as the subject occurs.
One of the most beautiful, and at the same time secluded of these
auxiliary vallies is the Unican, or White River of Arkansas and
Missouri. This stream, properly belongs, to the river system of the
Arkansas, with which it, however, is only connected, with the anoma-
lous channel of intercommunication of the Cutoff.
Most of the rivers which enter the Mississippi, consist of turbid or
colored waters. They rush through such rich alluvial districts, that
they carry along, in their impetuous course, not only large contribu-
tions of the fertile soil, through which they run, but trunks of entire
trees, and other buoyant matter, while their channels push along,
towards the ocean, the stones and boulders in their beds. Thus the
Missouri, is so turbid that it seems like a chaos, earths, clays, sands
commingling in it, till its turbidity assumes a continually varying,
and streaked, or mottled appearance. The Red river and Arkansas,
The Literary Voyager
are both so highly charged with marl-like clays, tinged by the red
oxide of iron, that often assumes the color of stagnant blood. But the
Unican, presents to the eye, in all its upper portions, a stream of light.
Crystal could hardly be purer, or whiter. Every pebble or other object
on its bed shines through it, with perfect clearness. Owing to this
extreme purity, its depth is always underrated, and sometimes leads
to fatal mistakes. Tourists and travellers who suppose themselves
crossing in two or three feet, often find themselves, and horses,
plunging into twenty feet. Most parts of these upper shores, are over-
looked by perpendicular cliffs of limestones and sandstones. Above its
great north Fork, its channel is frequently interrupted by shoals and
rapids, over which its ample volume, rolls in wreaths of white and
sparkling foam. Such are the Buffalo and Bull shoals. The Calico
Rock is one of those perpendicular walls of horizontal rocks, over
which the trickling waters, clays, and oxides have spread their tracery,
which gives an aspect, resembling the Pictured Rocks on lake
Some of the minor tributaries of this river, yield pebbles of agate.
Galena, blende, and mountain iron ore are found in other places, and
in its more south westerly territories, its quartz veins in slate, betoken
gold. For a long distance, this beautiful river, runs in defiles through
the great and picturesque Ozark chain. Its western sources interlock
with the Osage and the Gasconade, and its northern springs with the
Merrimac, the Black and the Current.
Some of the tributaries of this river, issue in full streams fromj
orifices in the rock. Many of the limestones of this region are caver-
nous, and their caves yield nitric salts. It is a region alike replete with
interest to the topographer, the lover of natural scenery, the mineralo-
gist, and the geologist.
In northern climes there liv'd a chief of fame,
LaPointS his dwelling, and Ojeeg his name,
Who oft in war had rais'd the battle cry,
And brav'd the rigors of an Arctic sky;
Nor less in peace those daring talents shone,
No. 13. March 10th 1827
That rais'd him to his simple forest throne,
Alike endow'd with skill, such heaven's reward,
To weild the oaken sceptre, and to guard.
Now round his tent, the willing chieftain's wait,
The gathering council, and the stern debate
Hunters, & warriors circle round the green,
Age sits sedate, & youth fills up the scene,
While careful hands, with flint & steel prepare,
The sacred fire the type of public care.
Warriors and friends' the chief of chiefs oppress'd,
With rising cares, his burning thoughts express'd.
'Long have our lands been hem'd around by foes,
Whose secret ire, no check or limit knows,
Whose public faith, so often pledg'd in vain,
'Twere base for freemen e'er to trust again.
Watch'd in their tracks our trusting hunters fall,
By ambush'd arrow, or avenging ball;
Our subtil foes lie hid in every pass,
Screen'd in the thicket, shelter'd in the grass,
They pierce our forests, & they cross our lines,
No treaty binds them, & no stream confines
And every spring that clothes the leafy plain,
We mourn our brethren, or our children slain.
Delay but swells our woes, as rivers wild,
Heap on their banks the earth they first despoil'd.
Oh chieftains! listen to my warning voice,
War war or slavery is our only choice.
No longer sit, with head & arms declin'd,
The charms of ease still ling'ring in the mind;
No longer hope, that justice will be given
If ye neglect the proper means of heaven :
Fear and fear only, makes our foemen just
Or shun the path of conquest, rage or lust,
Nor think the lands we own, our sons shall share,
If we forget the noble rites of war.
Choose then with wisdom, nor by more delay,
Put off the great the all important day.
The Literary Voyager
Upon yourselves alone, your fate depends,
Tis warlike acts that make a nation friends
Tis warlike acts that prop a falling throne,
And makes peace, glory, empire, all our own.
Oh friends! think deeply on my counselwords
I sound no peaceful cry of summer birds!
No whispering dream of bliss without allay
Or idle strain of mute, inglorious joy
Let my bold voice arouse your slumb'ring hearts,
And answer warriorswith uplifted darts,
Thick crowding arrows, bristled o'er the plain,
And joyous warriors rais'd the battle strain.
All but Camudwa, 104 join'd the shouting throng,
Camudwa, fam'd for eloquence of tongue
Whose breast resolv'd the coming strife with pain,
And peace still hop'd, by peaceful arts to gain.
'Friends' he reply'd 'our rulers words are just,
Fear breeds respect and bridles rage or lust,
But in our haste, by rude and sudden hate,
To prop our own, or crush our neighbors state
Valor itself, should not disdain the skill
By pliant speech, to gain our purpos'd will.
The foe may yet, be reason'd into right.
And if we fail in speech we still may fight.
At least, one further effort, be our care,
I will myself, the daring message bear,
I give my body, to the mission free,
And if I fall, my country, 'tis for thee!
The wife and child, shall lisp my song of fame,
And all who value peace, repeat my name!
Tis well Baimwawa 165 placidly replied,
'To cast our eyes, with care to either side,
Lest in our pride, to bring a rival low,
Our own fair fields shall fall beneath the foe.
Great is the stake, nor should we lightly yield,
Our ancient league by many a battle seal'd.
No. 13. March 10th 1887
The deeds of other days before my eyes,
In all their friendship, love and faith arise,
When hand in hand with him we rov'd the wood,
Swept the long vale, or stem'd the boiling flood.
In the same war path, march'd with ready blade,
And liv'd, and fought, and triumph'd with his aid.
When the same tongue, express'd our joys and pains,
And the same blood ran freely thro' our veins?
'Not we not we' in rage Keewaydin 106 spoke,
'Strong ties have sever'd, or old friendships broke,
Back on themselves the baseless charge must fall,
They sundcr'd name, league, language, rites and all.
They, with our firm allies, the Gallic race,
First broke the league, by secret arts and base,
Then play'd the warrior call'd our bands a clog,
And earn'd their proper title, Fox and Dog.
Next to the false Dacota gave the hand,
And leagued in war, our own destruction plan'd.
Do any doubt the words I now advance,
Here is my breast' he yelled & shook his lance.
'Rage' interposed the sage Canowakeed, 167
Ne'er prompted wit, or bid the council speed
For other aims, be here our highest end,
Such gentle aims as rivet friend to friend.
If harsher fires, in ardent bosoms glow,
At least restrain them, till we meet the foe,
Calm judgment here, demands the care of all,
For if we judge amiss, ourselves shall fall.
Beside, what boasts it, that ye here repeat,
The current tale of ancient scaith or heat,
Love, loss, or bicker, welcome or retort,
Once giv'n in earnest, or returned sport
Or how, or when, this hapless feud arose,
That made our firmest friends, our firmest foes.
That so it is, by causes new or old,
There are no strangers present, to be told,
The Literary Voyager
Each for himself, both knows & feels & sees,
The growing evils of a heartless peace,
And the sole question, of this high debate,
Is shall we longer suffer longer wait,
Or, with heroic will, for strife prepare,
And try the hazard of a gen'ral warl
To MY MATERNAL GRANDFATHER
ON HEARING His DESCENT FROM CHIPPEWA ANCESTORS
Rise bravest chief ! of the mark of the noble deer,
With eagle glance,
Resume thy lance,
And wield again thy warlike spear!
The foes of thy line,
With coward design,
Have dar'd, with black envy, to garble the truth,
And stain, with a falsehood, thy valorous youth.
They say, when a child, thou wert ta'en from the Sioux,
And with impotent aim,
To lessen thy fame
Thy warlike lineage basely abuse,
For they know that our band,
Tread a far distant land,
And thou noble chieftain! art nerveless and dead,
Thy bow all unstrung, and thy proud spirit fled.
Can the sports of thy youth, or thy deeds ever fade?
Or those ever forget,
Who are mortal men yet,
The scenes where so bravely thou'st lifted the blade,
Who have fought by thy side,
And remember thy pride,
When rushing to battle, with valor and ire,
Thou saw'st the fell foes of thy nation expire.
No. 13, March 10th 18S7
Can the warrior forget how sublimely you rose?
Like a star in the west,
When the sun's sunk to rest,
That shines in bright splendor to dazzle our foes:
Thy arm and thy yell,
Once the tale could repel
Which slander invented, and minions detail,
And still shall thy actions refute the false tale.
Rest thou, noblest chief! in thy dark house of clay,
Thy deeds and thy name,
Thy child's child shall proclaim,
And make the dark forests resound with the lay;
Though thy spirit has fled,
To the hills of the dead,
Yet thy name shall be held in my heart's warmest care,
And cherish'd, till valor and love be no more.
The Literary Voyager
No. 14. Sault Ste. Marie March 2Sth
On the 13th inst. at 11 o'clock at night, William Henry, only child of
Henry R. Schoolcraft Esqr. AE. 2 years, 8 mo. & 14 days. "Suffer
little children to come unto me, and forbid them not; for of such is
the kingdom of heaven."
NOTICE OF WILLIAM HENRY SCHOOLCRAFT
The month of May  at the Sault Ste. Marie, was a month of
all the sweets of attractive northern climate and scenery. The harsh
winds of winter, had ceased with the opening of April. May intro-
duced into the woodlands and glades of the St. Mary's valley, the
little pink bordered miscodeed, or spring beauty, the wild violet of
the north, with other well known blossoms of Flora's bounties. And
the month of June completed the botanical panorama, by contribut-
ing its flowering shrubs, with agreeable odors. The river ran ma-
jestically before our doors, on its proud course, to Lake Huron, and
the distant hills of lake Superior, and the white wreathed rapids of
St. Mary, with their ceaseless, murmuring diapason, led every heart
to be joyful. To these sweet and agreeable objects, there was added
on the 27th of the month the beautiful and bright-eyed, little stranger
William Henry. A smile was his first expression in joining the society
of the world. With a face of the purest Caucassian whiteness, eyes
with the brilliancy of a polished diamond, auburn hair, and features
of the sweetest amenity of regularity, he became at once an object of
the deepest love and affection. Physical traits of so attractive a kind,
were, however, only the tokens of an intellect, bright and precocious.
When but six months old, having gone with his parents to the City
of New York, his nurse in carrying him from the boarding house to
the Battery, was frequently stopped, to ask the name of the bright
and beautiful child. And when the reply denoted that his mother was
another Pocahontas, Chippewa blood by the maternal line, and a sire
No. 14. March 28th
from the coasts of Dalriada in the north of Ireland, where she was
educated, additional interest, was felt in the bright American boy,
and many visits were paid to see the mother and child, at their
lodgings. The winter of '24 and '25 added to the rapid development
of his manly traits and attainments in speech and decided manner,
and the spring of 1825, before his first year closed, beheld him walk.
His father, during this time, having occasion to visit Washington,
and spend sometime at the Capitol, an invitation of Saml. S. Conant
Esqr. and Mrs. Conant to the mother and child to spend the in-
terim at their country residence, a few miles out of the city [of New
York] on the Bloomingdale road, was accepted, and he continued to
improve in growth and development. Born with a fine constitution and
complete organization, no sickness ever detracted from his physical
In the spring of 1825, parting from the kind friends, who had
rendered the winters residence in the city agreeable, he proceeded with
his parents up the attractive valley of the Hudson, to Albany to the
western parts of the state, where d season was spent at the residence
of his grandfather and grandmother. Being accompanied from there
by a young uncle and aunt, 168 just entering on the stage of active
life, who sought their future homes in the west, the party proceeded
to Buffalo, and thence by those fine line of palace steamboats, which
mark the Lakes, to Detroit, & through the magnificent panorama of
lake Huron and the sylvan St. Mary's straits, to the scene of his
nativity at St. Mary's.
His first year had now closed. To see the infantile countenance ex-
pand with new life and hope, and the hearts of adult, re-illumined
by the return of such joyous accessions to, and renewal of affectionate
sympathy, constituted one of the brightest scenes of human life and
social enjoyment. We are bound together in closer bonds, by every
such exhibition. There is nothing sordid in it, and the heart is thus
purified and exalted.
Elmwood, 169 the seat of his nativity, stands on the banks of one of
the noblest of rivers, where the eye is constantly regaled with sights
of vessels and Indian canoes, in their picturesque and native rig. His
father being called to attend a distant council of native chiefs, at
Prairie du Chien, on the Mississippi, he had left the wharf in front
of the agency, in the light and rapid canoe, manned with the Canadian
The Literary Voyager
voyageurs, with their gay feathers and allegoric songs and duetts,
and thus passed out of sight, as a summer cloud driven by the wind.
To walk along these banks with his nurse, watching the return of this
canoe, to pick the wild flowers on its banks, to learn the art of casting
pebbles into the water, these became his employments. Early autumn
brought the expected return, and the following fall and winter, added
to his little arts, and gave new proofs of a precociousness in every
thing. The spring of 1826, brought new duties, which drew his father
to a convocation of native chiefs, at Fond du Lac, on the extreme head
of lake Superior. Willy was now two years old. His father had taught
him the alphabet, by making twenty six wooden cubes, and putting
the same letter on each of its six sides, so that whichever turned up,
in his plays, the same letter of the alphabet appeared. This necessary
absence, consumed the summer of that year. On returning in the
autumn, he brought him a little bag of cornelians and agates from
that lake as playthings. He found him improved by his walks, sports,
and alphabetical studies, with improved health, and redolent joyous-
ness of spirits. His voice and smile formed the charm of the domestic
circles. He chased his shadow on the wall, as a phenomenon; he
talked to his dog, as if possessed of reason, and he, manfully got out
of his little carriage, on any little accident, offering to aid in repairing
the mechanical interruption. The completion of the garrison saw mill,
became a new and very exciting object of his notice. The roaring of
the water, and above all, the action of the surf arrested his deepest
attention. His grandmother, never failed to address him in the native
tongue, and used both the Chippewa and English words, sometimes
as synonyms, and sometimes by clipping the Indian of its initial, or
terminal syllables. She invariably addressed him by native infantile
exhibition for boys, of penaysee or little Bird, a term of manly endear-
ment, birds being symbollically, referred to as figures of speech in
war. And she, carefully made him a little pillow of swan's down,
plucked from the game brought in by aboriginal friends.
The terms new and old, are wholly relative, without reference to
any particular period of time. Old, was, to his mind, merely some-
thing that has transpired, so that when in the fall of 1826, a barrel of
fine spitzenberg apples had been opened, he eagerly seized one, say-
ing, "here is my old apple."
He had, from the earliest moments of his life, been made familiar
No. 11. March Q8fh 1887
with the existence of God and recognized that existence, pointing to
His residence above. But what was noticeable as a physical phenome-
non of no good omen, was his stopping often, in a still and clear day,
and saying "it thunders!" The autumn of 1826, and the winter of
1827, wore away heavily, and compelled us to keep more than the
usual time within doors. March opened with a cloudy and humid
atmosphere. Willy exhibited cataral symptoms, during which he was
carelessly exposed by the nurse in visits, relying on his usual robust
health. The night following this exposure, indications of croup ap-
peared. Dr. [Zina] Pitcher from fort Brady was in attendance, at an
early hour, but the developments of the disease, were so rapid, that
only temporary reliefs were afforded that night and morning. The
disease assumed a more violent form during the next day, which
baffled every attempt of skill, and terminated fatally, on the after-
noon of that day. (13th)
So sudden and rapid had been the disease, that no emaciation took
place. In a vigorous development of every physical faculty, the repose
and placidity of his countenance retained every sign of life. He ap-
peared in death, as if but sleeping, and the ring of his charming voice,
was still in the house, while he lay a lifeless embodiment of humanity.
Expectation; as it gazed on his placid features, could hardly be per-
suaded, that he would not again speak.
Death in a family is ever appaling. Willy had lived every moment
of his life to be loved and admired. Of a bright happy organization,
physically and mentally, he was the source of perpetual happiness to
others. His appearance and life in the world, appear like a happy
dream, and when he was suddenly withdrawn, the hearts that loved
him were desolate, and only desolate. The blow his death inflicted,
was regarded as admonitory.
There was a hope, even in despair. The nucleus of his coffin pillow,
was a bible the only one his father had, up to that date owned. Over
his shroud was spread a fold of white satin. On the third day, after
his demise, his funeral took place. A wide road had been dug through,
in the heavy snow plain, that intervened, between the south side of
Fort Brady, and the garrison burying ground. His aged grandfather
John Johnston Esqr. read the English service. And thus the jewel of
bright hopes and warm hearts, was left under the wide winter mantle
of snow which covered the whole country. In the spring a neat tomb-
The Literary Voyager
stone of marble was erected, containing under the dates, the words
"Sweet Willy." His vase of agates were spread around the path, and
the mountain ash, and the rose and wild violets planted, as a shade,
over the sacred spot. 170
LINES OF A FATHER ON THE DEATH OF His SON
Sad is the task, a father's hand essays,
To mourn thy fate in tributary lays.
These bitter sighs express my latent woe,
And bathed in tears, the verse must onward flow.
ever loved ! ever beauteous son !
So fondly cherish'd, and so early flown
So sweet, so fair so link'd in ev'ry part,
Thy dear idea clings around my heart.
1 sought no joys but such as thou might'st see,
And lost a father's name, in losing thee !
Oh! can I blot away that dismal night,
That clos'd in death those eyes of beaming light,
Hush'd the small pulse, that warm'd thy lab'ring breast
And wing'd thy spirit to eternal rest.
I held thy tender arm as life fled fast,
Mark'd each returning throb, and felt the last,
Press'd in mute agony thy burning head,
And saw thee lie pale, motionless and dead !
Still seems his form to gleam before my eyes,
I see his face I hear his playful cries,
Still seem to bear him in my anxious arms,
And gaze enraptur'd on his infant charms.
Ah bitter fancy! cease to haunt my brain,
Too soon I wake to wretchedness and pain,
Too soon from slumber's mazy ties I start,
And all the father rushes to my heart.
Oft have I led his tender little hand,
On yonder hill to take my airy stand,
Where gliding waters sweep its ample base,
And azure hills fill up the distant space,
No. 14* March 88th 18S7
Pointing to earth, or to the starry plains,
Where God invisible, eternal reigns.
And oft, when sober evening streak'd the west,
And weary nature woed his cradle-rest,
Pleas'd have I watch'd his slumber sealed eyes,
And seen, in fancy, all the man arise,
I traced his course thro' academic cells,
Where genius lingers, and where learning dwells,
And fondly hop'd, youth's anxious perils past,
Fame, virtue, grace, should crown his life at last.
Fond dream of bliss a shadow or a shade,
In one short night f orever-ever fled !
And when dire sickness, seiz'd his little frame,
I watch'd intent, beside the midnight flame,
Laid my moist hand upon his fever'd brain,
And strove by ev'ry art to soothe his pain,
Oft gave the cup I fondly wish'd to bless,
And gave it once, when he no more could press !
These throbbing veins, these heavy sighs declare,
How weak, how vain, was every human care!
Th J Eternal Power, ever good and wise,
Reclaimed the suffering cherub to the skies,
Such was his will, ere earth or heaven begun,
be that will, not mine Jehovah, done!
EXTRACT OF A LETTER, DATED MARCH 22ND 182 7 171
"It has pleased the mysterious providence of God, to separate from
us, our dear and only child. This event would have been one of the
hardest trials to which our hearts could have been put, happen when
it might, but has overwhelmed our feelings by the sudden and unex-
pected manner, in which our son was called away. He was carried off
by that fatal disease, the croup, after an illness of only twenty six
hours. And such was the blindness of our affections, that up to within
the very hour of his disease, we were in momentary hopes of some
favorable change, and could not admit the idea of death. So rapid
was the transition from life to death, that the sound of his playful
The Literary Voyager
voice still seemed to ring in our ears, when he lay an inanimate corpse.
"You will recollect the picture of health which our dear boy pre-
sented during our visit to New York. His sparkling eye, and florid
countenance, were the delight of every circle; but were peculiarly so,
of our own. As he grew up, and his faculties developed themselves, he
became every day more lovely and engaging, and took a deeper hold
on our hearts. He began to speak early, and improved rapidly, and
we had daily cause to observe a mind sensible and intelligent beyond
his years. His interesting prattle, the vivacity of his manners, and
those expressive, speaking eyes, in which the soul of love and affec-
tion beamed forth, rivetted our hearts. His well being formed the
object of our fondest hopes, and we had formed no plan of future
felicity, in which he had not the most conspicuous part.
"To his grandfather and grandmother, and to his affectionate aunts
and uncles, he was equally endeared; & their sweetest enjoyments
arose from those little offices of affection which they continually
sought opportunities of paying. So endeared, so beloved, our whole
souls were wrapped up in him, and we were suddenly awakened from
this trance of bliss, by beholding his pale and cold limbs those
beaming eyes closed in death that beautiful forehead cold as marble,
and that lovely mouth closed with a placid smile in death. We retained
his dear body with us as long as custom rendered proper, and we
gazed upon his manly features with undescribable emotions.
"God saw that we had erected an idol in our hearts, and to the end,
that we might fix our affections with less intensity upon sublunary
objects, transferred him, to that bright, eternal sphere, "where the
wicked cease from troubling, and the weary are at rest." The promises
of holy writ are consolatory, and the maxims of Christianity, teach,
as with words of fire, that the present scene is one of trial and afflic-
tion, in which no true happiness is permitted, and that we must look
forward to a future state for that "peace, which passeth all under-
A REMINISCENCE OF DOMESTIC SCENES,
DATED, PRAIRIE DXJ CHIEN JULY 27 TH 1825 172
"William Henry is thirteen months old this very day. He will prob-
ably be fifteen before I see him. Will he walk alone? Will he have
No. 14. March 28th 1827
added many words to his slender vocabulary of papa! and mamma!
before that period? These are pleasing recollections. Let me see, how
I can improve them."
"Lovely, smiling, prat'ling boy,
"Eldest born of hope and joy
"With thy sweet, expressive eyes,
"Where the jet with diamond vies,
"With thy sense-denoting face,
"Manly lineaments and grace,
"Fair in ev'ry trait and feature,
"Lovely, smiling little creature,
"Art thou still the same sweet Lilly,
"Say, my beauteous little Willy?
"Art thou, as when last I saw,
"Crying still, Papa! Papa!
"Clinging to thy mother's breast,
"Pleas'd whene'er by her carest,
"Portraiture of health and bliss
"Smiling to receive a kiss.
"Or, has time so quickly made,
"On thy face a manlier shade,
"Given thy limbs a greater length,
"Or thy muscles greater strength,
"Given thy voice a deeper tone,
"Or approaching more my own !
"Is thy tender infant mind,
"Still to happy play inclin'd!
"Or begins it to discover,
"Aught of little mad-cap rover,
"Daring, noisy, willful, vex'd,
"Pleas'd this hour, displeas'd the next!
"If so, spare him Dearest! rather
"Rule the son, as thou'st the father
"Not like Juno or like Jove,
"But by tender, winning love.
"Now adieu, heav'ns smile attend,
"The child, the mother and the friend."
The Literary Voyager
ON VIEWING THE CORPSE OF WILLIAM H. SCHOOLCRAFT
FEBRUARY 14TH 1827
Sweet child! how soon,
Thy cold and lifeless form, will be convey'd,
To the gloomy silent tomb I There,
To moulder and return to dust.
But hope bids me say; ere this,
Thy spirit rests, in the bosom of thy God
Where nought is found, but peace,
And happiness ; when ages numberless
Shall have past away, thy bliss
Is just begun. Fortunate !
Thrice, fortunate, art thou! so soon,
T'escape the great the numberless evils,
Of this ungrateful world.
Had thy life been prolong'd, thy tender heart,
Might have received wound upon wound,
Hate, malice, envy, evil; all combin'd,
Thee innocent to destroy. But sweet Babe,
From all these evils, thou are free
Entirely free! To parents and relatives,
Great indeed thy loss ! but to thee,
Great the gain! Parents? has not the bliss,
Of your dear William, ever been your theme?
Why then lament so much? Why wish him back
To this vain world of sin and sorrow.
Oh! wipe away the drop that's forc'd to flow,
And kiss the hand that sore afflicts, and say,
With David "He will not come to us, but we,
Shall go to him." If ye're possessed
Of innocence like his, short very short,
Will be your separation! Seek it then,
And a few revolving years, (at most ! )
Will close your earthly trials, and duties,
No. 14- March 28th 1S7
And allow you, once more, to behold,
Your near and dear Willy.
J. EL 173
The voice of reason bids me dry my tears,
But nature frail, still struggles with that voice;
Back to my mind that placid form appears
Lifeless, he seemed to live and to rejoice,
As in the arms of death he meekly lay.
Oh, Cherub Babe! thy mother mourns thy loss,
Tho' thou hast op'd thine eyes in endless day;
And nought, on earth, can chase away my grief
But Faith pleading the merits of the Cross,
And Him, whose promise gives a sure relief.
J. S. 174
To AN AUTUMNAL WALK
Come and walk on the bank it is charming to see,
Come and walk on the bank, with my Willy and me;
Winds and rain now no longer disfigure the scene,
And the sad spreads a carpet of velvet and green
Fleecy clouds fly above like a veil drawn aside,
And the Sun's smiling out, like a golden hair'd bride.
Come and walk come and walk it is charming to see,
Come and walk on the bank, with my Willy and me.
The woodlands are fading yet fading they spread
A beautiful liv'ry of yellow and red.
Hark ! The plover comes up with his October cry,
And the river runs swiftly and murmuring by;
Yet think not of winter! but look on our son,
Who fills up the moments with beauties his own.
Come and walk come and walk, it is charming to see,
Come and walk on the bank, with my Willy and me.
The Literary Voyager
Away to the south, all our songsters have fled,
And the flow'rs of our garden are faded and dead,
Yet our green river bank it is left us in bliss,
And the Sun shines to guild it, on evening's like this !
Come, enhance with thy presence, a season so fine,
And smile on the beauties that mark its decline,
Come and walk come and walk it is charming to see,
Come and walk on the bank with my Willy and me.
The morning flow'rs display their sweets,
And gay their silken leaves unfold;
As careless of the noontide heats,
And fearless of the evening cold.
Nipt by the winds unkindly blast,
Parch'd by the sun's directer ray,
The momentary glories waste,
The short liv'd beauties die away.
So blooms the human face divine,
While youth its pride of beauty shows,
Fairer than spring the colors shine,
And sweeter than the virgin rose.
Or worn by slowly rolling years,
Or broke by sickness in a day,
The fading glory disappears,
The short liv'd beauties die away.
But then new rising from the tomb,
With lustre brighter far shall shine,
Revive with ever during bloom,
Safe from diseases and decline.
Let sickness blast let death devour,
If heaven will recompense our pains,
No. 14. Marcli 28th
Perish the grass and fade the flower,
If firm the word of God remains.
E. K. 175
DEATH AND FAITH
"Sweet Day so calm so bright,
"The bridal of the Earth and Sky
"The dew shall weep thy Fall tonight,
"For thou must die."
"Sweet Rose," that doth such fragrance leave,
On every gale that passes by,
"Thy root is ever in the grave,
"And thou must die."
"Sweet Spring" array M in loveliest flowers,
Bright are thy days! but ahl they fly,
Time urges on the lagging hours,
And thou must die.
But thou, sweet Love, dear child of Faith,
With Christ shall reign in glory high,
Shalt prove triumphant over death,
And never die.
To A BOY AT SCHOOL, FROM HIS MOTHER
Dear object of my love, too fondly dear,
Still on my lip I feel thy parting tear,
Still hear the sobs that heaved thy little heart,
When from my fond embraces forced to part.
Alas ! my child, how sorrow from our birth,
Is interwov'n with all the joys of earth!
E'en the fine feelings which warm hearts unite,
The noblest earthly sources of delight,
From which our dearest, best enjoyments flow,
Are still the sources of our keenest woe,
And warn us not to fix the feeling heart,
Or aught this transient being can impart.
The Literary Voyager
But now advance the ever rolling year,
Thy glad heart bounds thy holy days are near
From all thy little cares thy thoughts now roam,
All fondly clust'ring round thy dear lov'd home.
How swiftly now the cheerful moments run,
How gaily thy remaining tasks are done !
Nought can disturb thee now, while to thine eyes,
The joys of home, in sweet idea, rise;
At length the welcome messenger is come !
Thy father sends him to conduct thee home;
Tho' rough may be the road, and chill the day
How pleasure wings thee on the joyous way!
Thus thus my child may God his grace bestow,
When thou hast fill'd thy destin'd tasks below,
When the last summons to go home is giv'n,
And Death appears, the messenger of Heaven,
May'st thou, thro' whatsoever path he please,
The path of suffering, or the path of ease,
Thus gladly follow to that blest abode,
The home where dwells thy Father and thy God.
Dec. 15th 1818 E. K.
Say dearest friend, when light your bark,
Glides down the Mississippi dark?
Where nature's charms in rich display,
In varied hue appear so gay
To wrap your mind and gain your eye,
As light and quick you pass them by,
Say, do thy thoughts e'er turn on home?
As mine to thee incessant roam.
And when at eve, in deserts wild,
Dost thou think on our lovely child!
Dost thou in stillness of the night,
By the planet's silvery light
Breathe a prayer to the Spirit above,
For thy wife, and thy child, my love.
No. 14- March 88th 1887
To MY EVER BELOVED AND LAMENTED SON
"Who was it nestled on my breast,
"And on my cheek sweet kisses prest"
And in whose smile I felt so blest?
Who hail'd my form as home I stept,
And in my arms so eager leapt,
And to my bosom joyous crept?
Who was it, wiped my tearful eye,
And kiss'd away the coming sigh,
And smiling bid me say "good boy"?
Who was it, looked divinely fair,
Whilst lisping sweet the evening pray'r,
Guileless and free from earthly care?
Where is that voice attuned to love,
That bid me say "my darling dove"?
But oh! that soul has flown above,
Whither has fled the rose's hue?
The lilly's whiteness blending grew,
Upon thy cheek so fair to view.
Oft have I gazed with rapt delight,
Upon those eyes that sparkled bright,
Emitting beams of joy and light!
Oft have I kiss'd that forehead high,
Like polished marble to the eye,
The Literary Voyager
And blessing, breathed an anxious sigh.
My son! Thy coral lips are pale,
Can I believe the heart-sick tale,
That I, thy loss must ever wail?
The clouds in darkness seemed to low'r,
The storm has past with awful pow'r,
And nipt my tender, beauteous flow'r !
But soon my spirit will be free,
And I my lovely son shall see,
For God, I know, did this decree.
March 23rd 1827
To a bereaved mother (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft) on witnessing the
death of her son, from the croup, a child of great mental promise,
and uncommon manliness of deportment. By the attending Physician.
I've seen life's foe his arrows fling,
Swift from the bow with deadly spring,
Leaving behind his mortal sting,
With venom fill'd.
But never saw a warmer heart,
Made cold by death's insatiate dart,
(With whom it pain'd my soul to part,)
Than thy best child's.
As twang'd the bow the victim sigh'd,
He heav'd his breast convuls'd, and died!
The mother shriek'd aloud and cried,
"Poor Willy's gone"!
No. 14. March $8thlS87
The father's grief ran deep and still,
In forc'd obedience to his will
While others swelled the bring rill,
For him that's flown.
I wail'd the impotence of art
Then wept to see the foeman's dart,
Fix'd firmly in his bleeding heart,
So fierce 'twas driven.
But we've a hope too pure to smother,
That b'yond this life there'll be another,
Where Willy and his pious mother,
Shall meet in heav'n.
March 2 5th 1827 Z. P.
Woman's tears, are as the sunbeams,
Smiling through vernal showers.
Woman's tears are as the rain descending
From the murky cloud, char'd with the tempest,
Ere the resplendent bow gives sign of safety,
And returning peace.
Woman's tears, are as the dew drops,
In the morning ray, warming to life,
The early buds of spring;
But woman's tears, when meekly shed,
In resignation o'er the infant flower,
Untimely blighted; are drops so precious,
That attending angels collect them in their urns,
And at the footstool of the Savior's throne
With the bright, beauteous Babe, present them,
As a pure off'ring, worthy of Him alone
Straight th'unfledg'd Cherub into Paternal
Arms is receiv'd and nourish'd to life
Eternal, in the warm bosom of Supernal love.
j. j. 177
The Literary Voyager
THE DEAD SON
The babe within its coffin lay,
In its robes of innocent unite;
But his spirit had wing'd his early way,
To the regions of glory and light.
The glow of life had left that face,
Which late for breath had striv'n,
But his placid smile, and infant grace
Spoke only of peace and heaven.
Cold and dank were his icy hands,
Though not more cold than fair;
They form'd a vault, beneath the sands,
And left him to moulder there.
But not alone oh! not alone!
The mother transpierc'd with care;
With frequent tears bedewed his stone,
And fondly lingered there.
But she shall dry her bitter tears,
And she shall smile again,
For lo! the Savior's word appear'd
To conquer death and pain.
That Word within his little tomb,
The parents trusting, lay
That they again shall see him bloom,
In everlasting day.
The Literary Voyager
No. 15. Sault Ste. Marie April llth 18%7
To those who have taken interest enough in our "Tale of the Creek
War" to wish to see a development of the plot, we must observe, that
the recent severe affliction, with which it has pleased an inscrutable
providence to visit our domestic circle, has pressed upon our feelings
and recollections, with too absorbing a sense of the reality, to permit
us to dwell upon fictitious woe.
As a succedaneum, we present, in the ensuing columns, an Indian
Rhapsody, which has lain in our drawer more than a twelvemonth. It
will, at least, have the effect to direct the attention, to one of the
most interesting periods of our frontier history; and to recal the name
of one of the noblest of those Aboriginal Chieftains, whose exploits
will embellish the future pages of American history.
PONTIAC'S APPEAL TO THE WESTERN TRIBES
Fort Niagara was captured by the British and provincials on the
24th July 17S9; Quebec surrendered to Wolf on the 18th of October
of the same year, and Montreal capitulated to Sir Jeffrey Amherst
early in 1760. To all but the Indians, the fall of Canada seemed to
be complete, although no treaty between the powers had yet been
made. Pontiac, had assumed a tone of haughty defiance, when the
first detachment of British troops came to take possession of the
country in 1761. 179 On the 8th of May 1763, he invested the fort
of Detroit, with his warriors and confederates, whom he had
gathered, from tribes and united in a league against the British pow-
ers. By his eloquence and energy, he roused up the tribes to make
resistance. On the 4th of June 1763, the English garrison at old
Michilimackinac, on the peninsula, was surprized and carried by the
Indians, The isolated little garrisons at Maumee, Presqu'Isle, and
along the whole frontier line of the lakes, were taken by his allies.
Detroit, the central, and strongest garrison of all, he reserved for his
personal action. The treaty of the 10th of February 1763, between
France and England, reached Detroit on the 3rd of June. He had then
The Literary Voyager
been before the place twenty seven days. As the bold defender of
Indian sovereignty, his position is heroic; but the effort was out of
time, being made just at the era when he could derive no aid, from his
warm allies the French. But what this chieftain may have lacked in
diplomatic knowledge of foreign nations, or foresight of his actual
position, he had well nigh, made up, by appeals to their superstitions,
prejudices and customs, and by knowledge of combinations and means
of offence, which are truly remarkable. The following address is
assumed to have been made at this time.
Now the war cloud gathers fast,
See it rising on the blast?
Soon our peace fires shall be quench'd,
Soon our blades in gore be drench'd ;
See the red foe's legions pour,
From Wyaunoc's 180 gulfy shore,
Threatening woe to me and mine,
Means and power, name and line
None may 'scape whose souls are free,
None who doat on liberty
Who is true, or who is brave,
Or who loathes to be a slave
Warriors up ! prepare attack !
'Tis the voice of Pontiac.
Hang the peace-pipe to the wall,
Rouse the nations one and all,
Tell them quickly to prepare,
For the bloody rites of war
Now begin the fatal dance,
Raise the club, and shake the lance.
Now prepare the bow and dart,
'Tis our father's ancient art !
Let each heart be strong and bold,
As our fathers were of old
Warriors up! prepare attack!
'Tis the voice of Pontiac.
No. 15. April llth 1827
Take the wampum warrior, fly!
Say a foreign foe is nigh,
On he comes with furious breath,
Speaking peace but dealing death
Spreading o'er our native plains,
Forts and banners, fire and chains;
Death comes marching in his train,
With the family of pain
Not the pain that warriors fear,
Ball or faggot, club or spear
Not fierce danger that is sweet!
Not the red pine's burning heat,
But the bane from which we shrink,
Fiery, fell, destroying Drink.
Warriors hear ! Be wise, be brave,
Rise to beat, and strike to save,
Rise to save a bleeding land,
From the rampart and the brand
From the arts and from the crimes,
Bred in transatlantic climes
From the thirst of sordid gains,
That ere long shall blast our plains,
And the cold, unpitying rush,
Name and rule that aims to crush.
Firmness now, is all that saves,
To submit is to be slaves 1
Now or never! to the field
Teach the lordly foe to yield,
Spurn his counsel, spurn his laws,
Strike alone for freedom's cause
Rally rally for th' attack.
Drive th' invading legions back,
To their homes beyond the seas
Thus great Manito decrees.
Up to arms prepare, attack!
} Tis the voice of Pontiac.
Nursing vengeance in their hearts
The Literary Voyager
They shall drive the legions back,
Like a thunder tempest, strong and black,
Tremble! 'tis the voice of Pontiac.
Heavens ! and can ye live and burn,
And not on the insulter turn?
Have ye hearts, and have ye ears,
And not shape your vengeful spears?
Are ye men by God's decrees,
And can suffer taunts like these?
Rend, oh rend! the' impurpled sky
With your thrilling battle-cry,
Vengeance, valor, liberty!
Onward then, to the attack
J Tis the voice of Pontiac.
[Nov. 12, 1825]
The Indian Sheemaugun or lance, is of remote antiquity, and appears
to have been used contemporaneously with the bow and arrow. It was
formed of a piece of flint, hornstone or jasper, firmly attached to a
handle of wood, by means of thread composed of the cartilagenous
fibres of certain animals. This animal thread afterwards assumed
great hardness, and possessed a strength and durability far beyond
that prepared from the linum, or gossypium. The modern Indian
lance, or club-lance, pointed with iron, is the result of altered man-
ner, and new means.
OVER THE GRAVE OF WILLIAM HENRY SCHOOLCRAFT
To gentle Willy's lonely tomb,
Soft hands and tender hearts shall bring,
"Each opening sweet of earliest bloom,
"And rifle all the breathing spring."
The leafy rowan there shall grow,
And there the tender vi'let bloom,
And many a wild-flow'r early blow,
To shed its fragrance o'er thy tomb.
No. 15. April llth 1827
The robin "oft at evening hours,
"Shall kindly lend his little aid
"With hoary moss, and gather'd flowers,
"To deck the ground where thou art laid."
Oft there shall fond Affection go,
And lonely sorrow thither stray,
To shed the tear of tender woe,
And sigh the dewy hours away.
The snow that weils the dreary ground,
Was not more pure and bright than thee,
The bow that gilds the heav'ns around,
Not more of promise show'd to me.
That snow shall melt that iris fade,
All nature change to mortal eye;
But thy pure soul in light array'd,
Shall swell immortal in the sky.
And when that month of vernal storms, 181
Shall pour again its wailing blast,
Fond hearts, whom love and pity warms,
The tender thought on thee shall cast.
Each sunny bank each early sweet,
Shall but renew the smother'd pain,
For there I led thy tender feet,
And hop'd to lead them oft again.
The dasied field the wild-wood lawn,
The stream that murmurs softly by,
Ah! what are these since thou art gone,
But sad mementos to my eye.
Each varied scene shall thee restore,
For thee the heart its sorrows shed,
The Literary Voyager
Belov'd till memory is no more,
And Love and Hope and Faith are dead.
AGE OF TREES
It is probable that living trees, are the oldest of all organic forms in
America, save fossil bones. This idea of the stable and lasting nature
of forest trees, is sustained by reference to scripture. This symbol is
seized on by Isaiah, who exclaims in describing the permanency of
blessings yet in store for the remnant of the people, "as the days of a
tree, are the days of my people; and mine elect shall long enjoy the
work of their hands." The promise relates to the permanence and
fixity of the houses, and vineyards, and the general prosperity, which,
the accepted, shall plant. Isa. LXV.22. If the oak or fagus yet stands,
on the hills of America, which by its nod, welcomed, Columbus, and
Cabot and Verizani to its shores, we perceive the great pertinacy of
this scriptural allusion.
SAULT DE STE. MARIE
This name was first bestowed on the rapids of the river which con-
nects the waters of lake Superior with those of lake Huron, by the
early Catholic missionaries in New France. Having given the name
of Saidt, a leap, on the falls. The Chippewas who were seated here,
called the passage of the river over a rocky bed, Bauwateeg. By a
change of the terminal inflection, from eeg, to ing, the meaning of at,
or by, was indicated. Having called the rapids Sault, they called the
Indians Saulteurs. The term Chippewa itself, is the Anglicized form
The place appears to have been first visited in 1642  by two
Jesuit missionaries named Isaac Joques and Charles Raymbault.
Sagard had established himself among the Hurons in 1634. Thus St.
Mary's was the second Catholic Mission in this country. 183
Notes to "The Literary Voyager"
1. Schoolcraft 's study of the Iroquois was originally published as Report
of Mr. Schoolcraft to the Secretary of State (New York) Trans-
mitting the Census Returns in Relation to the Indians (Albany, 1846).
It was later reissued as Notes on the Iroquois; or Contributions to
American History, Antiquities, and General Ethnology (Albany,
2. For a bibliography of Schoolcraft's better known works, see Chase
and Stellanova Osborn, Schoolcraft, Longfellow, and Hiawatha
(Lancaster, Pa., 1942), pp. 624-645,
3. Index to Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes of the United States. Compiled
by Frances S. Nichols (Washington, 1954).
4. Walter Hough, "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft," Dictionary of American
Biography, XVI (1943), p. 457.
5. See Vernon Kinietz, "Schoolcraft's Manuscript Magazines," Biblio-
graphical Society of America, Papers, XXXV (April- June, 1941),
6. Algic Researches, Comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Char-
acteristics of the North American Indians, 2 vols., (New York, 1839) ;
The Red Race of America (New York, 1847) ; The Myth of Hia-
watha, and other Oral Legends, Mythological and Allegoric, of the
North American Indians (Philadelphia, 1856).
7. (London, 1838), 3 vols.
8. (New York, 1836), 2 vols.
9. The "Literary Voyager" was in great demand among Schoolcraft's
friends in Detroit. Governor Lewis Cass and his wife requested to
examine the copies of the magazine which were circulating in Detroit
in 1829. See Henry R. Schoolcraft to Jane Schoolcraft, May 1828;
and Henry Whiting to Schoolcraft, June 2, 1829. Schoolcraft Papers,
Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress. See also Kinietz, "School-
craft's Manuscript Magazines," Biographical Society of America,
Papers, XXXV (April-June, 1941), p. 153.
10. Stellanova and Chase S. Osborn, Schoolcraft, Longfellow and Hia-
watha, pp. 444-445.
The Literary Voyager
11. Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian
Tribes on the American Frontiers (Philadelphia, 1851), xxxiv.
12. Even as a glassmaker, Schoolcraft pursued his scholarly interests. He
experimented constantly and prepared a treatise entitled "Vitrology or
the Art of Making Glass." A small bound manuscript volume of this
study is in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress.
13. (New York, 1819).
14. Personal Memoirs, p. 87.
15. The American claim to land for a fort at Sault Ste. Marie was based
on a provision of the Treaty of Greenville of 1 795.
16. A first-hand account of this episode is found in Schoolcraft 's Narra-
tive Journal of Travels through the Northwestern Regions of the
United States . . . in the Year 1820 (Albany, 1821), pp. 137-140, and
the Journal of Charles C. Trowbridge, which was published in three
installments in Minnesota History, XXIII (1942), pp. 126-148, 233-
252, 328-348. The original journal is in the Burton Historical Collec-
tion of the Detroit Public Library.
Sassaba continued to oppose American authority even after Fort
Brady and the Indian agency were established at Sault Ste. Marie in
1822. According to Schoolcraft, he never forgave the Americans for
the death of his brother at the Battle of the Thames in 1813. He was
drowned in the rapids of the St. Mary's River, September 25, 1822,
while on a drinking spree with several companions. Schoolcraft, Per-
sonal Memoirs, p. 119.
1 7. War Department directives to the Indian agent are in the Records of
the Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian
Affairs, Record Group #75, National Archives. See Lewis Cass to
Schoolcraft, March 12, 1823, Ibid.
18. Schoolcraft, The Indian in his Wigwam, or Characteristics of the Red
Race of America (Buffalo, 1848), p. 64.
19. An original copy of the questionnaire is in the Cass Collection in the
William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor. See also Elizabeth G.
Brown, "Lewis Cass and the American Indian," Michigan History
XXXVII (September, 1953), pp. 286-298.
20. Schoolcraft, Personal Memoirs, p. 89.
21. Schoolcraft's dictionary of the Chippewa was never published, except
for a brief word list, which appeared in Narrative Journal of Travels
through the Northwestern Regions of the United States (Philadelphia,
1856), pp. 203-210. A manuscript copy of the dictionary is in the
Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress.
22. Schoolcraft, Personal Memoirs, pp. 196-197.
23. Schoolcraft recorded the interviews of the following Chippewa lead-
ers who visited him at Sault Ste. Marie during the 1820's: Chacopee
(The Six), Snake River, Wisconsin; Monomine Kashee (The Rice
Maker), Port Lake, Wisconsin; Chianokwaut or Terns Covert (The
Lowering or Dark Cloud), Leech Lake, Minnesota; Shingabawossin
(The Image Stone), Sault Ste. Marie; Shewabeketon (Jingling
Medals), Sault Ste. Marie; Wayishkee (The First-born Son), Sault
Ste. Marie; Guelle Plat (Flat Mouth), Leech Lake; Grosse Guelle
(Big Throat), Sandy Lake, Minnesota; Catawabeta (The Broken
Tooth), Sandy Lake; Wabishke Penais (The White Bird), LaPointe,
Wisconsin; Miscomonetoes (The Red Insect or Red Devil), Ottawa
Lake, Wisconsin ; Mongozid (The Loon's Foot) , Fond du Lac, Minne-
sota; Annamikens (Little Thunder), Red River, Minnesota.
The detailed notes on these interviews are in the Schoolcraft Papers
in the Library of Congress.
24. The data on John Johnston's early history is taken from a series of
"autobiographical letters" which he wrote at Schoolcraft's request
shortly before his death in 1828. They were published in 1903 in the
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, XXXII (1902), pp.
328-353. Schoolcraft used these letters in his "Memoir of John
Johnston" written shortly after the death of his father-in-law for
publication by the Michigan Historical Society. It was not used at
this time, however, but was published in the Michigan Pioneer and
Historical Collections } XXXVI (1908), pp. 53-90.
For additional biographical information on Johnston and his family,
see: Charles H. Chapman, "The Historic Johnston Family of the
Soo," Ibid., pp. 305-328; L. R. Masson, Les Bourgeois de la Com-
pagnie du Nord-ouest (Quebec, 1889-90) ; Alice B. Clapp, "George
Johnston, Indian Interpreter," Michigan History, XXIII (Autumn,
1939), pp. 350-366.
25. In 1810, John Johnston was offered the governorship of the projected
Hudson's Bay Red River Colony. He declined because he felt the
move would impair the education of his children and because he
recognized the rival Northwest Fur Company would attempt to wreck
the colony. His decision was wise, for the colony failed and its gov-
ernor, William Semple, was killed and scalped in an Indian attack,
inspired and directed by agents of the Northwest Company. See
Alexander Ross, The Red River Settlement (London, 1856), and
Schoolcraft, "Memoir of John Johnston," Michigan Pioneer and
Historical Collections, XXXVI (1908), pp. 59-60.
Later, John Jacob Astor, the owner of the American Fur Company,
hired Johnston to direct the Company's operations in the Lake
Superior region. This agreement was terminated when Congress
The Literary Voyager
passed legislation in 1816 restricting trade within the territorial limits
of the United States to citizens. Ibid., XXXVI (1908), pp. 73-74.
26. See "Account Book of John Johnston, 1814-1819," Schoolcraft Papers,
Library of Congress.
27. The losses he suffered forced Johnston to abandon his plans to pur-
chase a farm near Montreal where his children could enjoy greater
educational advantages. Schoolcraft, "Memoir of John Johnston,"
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, XXXVI (1908), p. 64.
28. George Johnston, "Reminiscences," Ibid., XII (1888), pp. 605-608.
29. In addition to their own children, the Johnston's adopted in infancy
Nancy Campbell, the daughter of a close family friend who was killed
in a gun duel in 1808 or 1809. Schoolcraft, "Memoir of John
Johnston," Ibid., XXXVI (1908), p. 61.
30. The correspondence between these two men are in the Johnston
Papers in the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public
Library, the Carnegie Library at Sault Ste. Marie, and the Schoolcraft
Papers in the Library of Congress.
31. William Johnston was particularly helpful in collecting legends of
the Chippewa and Ottawa for his brother-in-law. As a fur trader, he
wintered often among the tribes of the Interior and had an excellent
opportunity to interview Indians relatively uncorrupted by contact
with white civilization. During the winter of 1833, for example, he
lived among the powerful and warlike Chippewa band, the Pillagers
of Leech Lake.
The Indian materials he collected there are in the Schoolcraft Papers
in the Library of Congress. Included in this material are the follow-
ing: "Story of Me-she-ge-na-big-o : Manners and Customs of the
Leech Lake Indians;" "Ottawa Stories;" "Shagwanabee;" "Ottawa
Superstitions and Traditions;" "Story of Bokewauwag and his
Brother;" "Ojeeg, or the Fisher, A Chippewa Tale;" "Manahbosho."
32. Sketches of a Tour of the Lakes (Baltimore, 1827), pp. 182-184.
33. Schoolcraft, Personal Memoirs, pp. 107-108.
34. Schoolcraft's interest in the "Literary Voyager" was more than an
attempt to provide his friends with a weekly magazine. As early as
1825, he made plans to publish a magazine dealing entirely with the
American Indian. The proposed title was Indian Annals and the for-
mat was to be similar to the North American Review. Although
Schoolcraft and his partner in the venture, Samuel L. Conant of New
York, solicited articles from leading Indian authorities, the magazine
did not appear in print. See Agreement between Schoolcraft, Conant
and the publishing firm of Wilder and Campbell, May 19, 1825;
Samuel Conant to Schoolcraft, July 19, 1825. Schoolcraft Papers,
Library of Congress; Schoolcraft's Personal Memoirs, p. 207.
Similarly, Schoolcraft's plans for the journal, The Algic Magazine
and Annals of Indian Affairs, never materialized. Planned during
1841, this publication had the support of Albert Gallatin, John C.
Calhoun, William Woodbridge, Caleb Cushing, and Percy Du Ponceau.
The Prospectus for this magazine is in the Schoolcraft Papers, Library
of Congress. Schoolcraft's Oneota, which appeared in serial form in
1844, was slightly more successful. It was similar to the "Literary
Voyager" in content, and indeed, contained many articles which were
reprinted from the earlier manuscript magazine. After Oneota failed in
1844-45, the issues were republished in book form. John F. Freeman,
"Pirated Editions of Schoolcraft's Oneota," Bibliographical Society of
America, Papers, LIII (Third Quarter, 1959), pp. 252-254.
35. This legend was later published by Mrs. Anna Brownell Jameson, a
well known English writer and traveller, in Winter Studies and Sum-
mer Rambles in Canada (London, 1838), Vol. Ill, pp. 218-221.
Mrs. Jameson visited Mr. and Mrs. Henry Schoolcraft at Mackinac
Island and the Johnston family at Sault Ste. Marie on her trip to the
United States in 1837. During her visit, Schoolcraft offered her the
use of his Indian materials, probably including the "Literary
Voyager." Schoolcraft later re-published the legend "Pebon and
Seegwun" in Algic Researches (New York, 1839), I, pp. 84-86; Myth
of Hiawatha and Other Oral Legends (Philadelphia, 1856), pp. 96-98;
and the Indian Fairy Book (New York, 1856), I, pp. 261-263.
36. Winter [H.R.S.].
37. The Claytonia Virginica [H.R.S.].
38. Schoolcraft later wrote about his experiences with the Indian,
Wabishkipenace or "The White Bird," who had led Lewis Cass and
his party to the site of the Ontonagon Boulder in 1820. His tribesmen
claimed that he displeased the Great Spirit by taking white men to
the Sacred Rock. According to Schoolcraft, the ostracism had a telling
effect on Wabishkipenace, for in March, 1827, when he visited the
Indian agency at Sault Ste. Marie, he was still dejected and melan-
choly and felt that he was being punished for his actions. Schoolcraft,
Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian
Tribes on the American Frontiers (Philadelphia, 1851), p. 260.
39. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft used the pseudonyms "Leelinau" and
"Rosa" in the magazine. Her mother was undoubtedly the source of
many of the legends which she submitted. In fact, the letter to the
editor "Character of Aboriginal Historical Tradition," was dictated
by Mrs. Johnston to Jane who translated it into English.
40. See note 39 above.
The Literary Voyager
41. Schoolcraft later published an account of this episode in Personal
Memoirs, pp. 104-5.
42. Rufus Anderson, Memoir of Catherine Brown, a Christian Indian of
the Cherokee Nation (Boston and New York, 1825).
43. Pseudonym used by Henry R. Schoolcraft.
44. In 1822, the U.S. placed an Indian agency for the Chippewa at Sault
Ste. Marie, at the foot of Lake Superior, in charge of Mr. Schoolcraft.
This tribe had been arrayed against the Americans in the War of
1812 and was yet unfriendly. Shingabawossin was one of the first
influential chiefs to espouse their cause, while his brother Sassaba
opposed it. [H.R.S.].
45. Mr. Schoolcraft [H.R.S.].
46. The Chippewa name for the Sabbath [H.R.S.].
47. Schoolcraft later published this allegory, attributed to the "manner of
the Algics," in Algic Researches, II, pp. 242-244. According to Mentor
Williams, who edited the legends, "The Vine and the Oak" was
"probably a Schoolcraft invention." Schoolcraft's Indian Legends
(East Lansing, 1956), p. 238.
48. Osha-gus-coda-waqua or Ozha-guscoday-way-quay as it was often
spelled, Chippewa for "Woman of the Green Valley," was the Indian
wife of John Johnston.
49. Chequamegon is now the accepted spelling.
50. Foxes [H.R.S.].
51. William W. Warren, the Ojibway historian, presented a different
account of the conflict between the Ojibway, the Fox, and the Sioux.
In his History of the Ojibway Nation (pp. 95-107), published by the
Minnesota Historical Society in 1885, he claimed that the Ojibway
had to fight the Fox and Sioux "at every step of their westward ad-
vance along the southern shores of the Great Lake . . ." They chose
the island of LaPointe because of its strategic position against sur-
prise attacks from their enemies.
52. Continued in issue No. 3, January, 1827.
53. Schoolcraft is quoting from Antonio De Solis' History of the Con-
quest of Mexico by the Spaniards, published in London in 1724. A
similar account is found in Schoolcraft's Personal Memoirs, pp. 160-
161. Schoolcraft brought a modest library with him to the Sault in
1822 and added to it constantly through purchases from Detroit,
Albany, and New York booksellers. Moreover, for the first two years
after the establishment of Fort Brady, the garrison library was housed
in Schoolcraft's office, allowing the Indian agent unlimited freedom to
use it. Among the books which he read between 1822 and 1827 were
Benjamin Silliman, Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hart-
ford and Quebec in the Autumn of 1819 (New Haven, 1820).
Jonathan Carver, Three Years Travels through the Interior Part
of North America, for more than 5,000 miles; containing an account
of the Great Lakes (Philadelphia, 1796).
Thomas Mante, History of the Late War in North America and the
Islands of the West Indies (London, 1772).
Louis Hennepin, Discovery of a Large, Rich, and Plentiful Country
in the Northern America; Extending Above 4,000 Leagues (London,
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Voyages from Montreal on the River St.
Lawrence through the Continent of North America, to the Frozen
and Pacific Oceans; in the Years 1789, 1793 . . . (London, 1801).
Johann Forster, History of the Voyages and Discoveries Made in
the North . . . (London, 1786).
Dieudonne Thiebault, Original Anecdotes of Frederick the Great,
King of Prussia j and his Family ~, his Court, his Ministers, his Aca-
demies and his Literary Friends (Philadelphia, 1806).
Daniel Williams Harmon, A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the
Interior of North America . . . (Andover, Mass., 1820).
Louis Armand Lahontan, New Voyages to North America . . .
Samuel Johnson, The Lives of the English Poets; and a Criticism
on Their Works (London, 1793).
Plutarch's Lives (New York, 1816).
54. George Yarns was Schoolcraft's first Indian interpreter whom he
hired on July 9, 1822, three days after the Indian agent's arrival at
the Sault. He described Yarns as "a burly-faced, large man of some
five and forty who tells me that he was born at Fort Niagara, of
Irish parentage . . . and has spent life it seems, knocking about trad-
ing posts, in the Indian country, being married, has metif children,
and speaks the Chippewa tongue fluently . . ." Schoolcraft, Personal
Memoirs, p. 96.
55. Erin Hall refers to the John Johnston residence at Sault Ste. Marie.
56. Schoolcraft is referring to his young dog, Ponti, who tore up some
valuable papers in his absence. By soaking the "gnawed and mutilated
parts in warm water," Schoolcraft was able to restore the manuscript.
Entry of December 22, 1822, Personal Memoirs, p. 133.
57. The Crane Totem was the designation given the most renowned clan
The Literary Voyager
of the Ojibway tribe of Lake Superior. Famous for its orators, this
group claimed chieftainship over other clans of the tribe.
58. The Battle of the Falls of the St. Croix occurred about 1770. Ojibway
warriors from Sault Ste. Marie, Grand Island, L'Ance, LaPointe, and
other Chippewa villages participated in the famous battle. Despite
strong support from the Dakotas, the Foxes were decisively defeated
and retreated far to the South, never again to challenge the Ojibways.
See William Warren, History of Ojibway Nation (Minneapolis, 1957),
59. Schoolcraft added the reference to the Treaty of Butte des Morts
60. New York Indians [H.R.S.].
61. The questions to the answers listed above by John Johnston are as
4. "To what other tribes are they related?"
5. "What is the degree of relationship?"
6. "What is the earliest incident they recollect in their history?"
7. "Whence did they come?"
8. "What migrations have they made, and when, and why?"
62. This poem was unquestionably written by Schoolcraft. Lake Dun-
more, Addison County, Vermont, was near the glass-making factory
'which Schoolcraft managed from 1813-1814.
63. Betula papyrucae [H.R.S.].
64. Solomon Gessner (1730-1788) was a Swiss idyllic poet, landscape
painter, and engraver.
65. This was one of Schoolcraft's favorite legends. He published it in
Algic Researches, Comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Char-
acteristics of the North American Indians (New York, 1839), I, pp.
221-225; History and Statistical Information Respecting the History,
Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the U.S. (Wash-
ington, 1852), II, pp. 229-230; The Myth of Hiawatha, and the Oral
Legends (Philadelphia, 1856), pp. 109-112; and the Indian Fairy
Book (New York, 1856), I, pp. 98-101.
Dr. Chandler Robbins Gilman, a New York physician, who visited
Schoolcraft on Mackinac Island in 1835, published the "Origin of the
Robin" tale in his Life on the Lakes (New York, 1836), I, pp. 165-
169. Dr. Gilman reported that Schoolcraft had recorded it from the
"lips of an old Chippewa woman" and that "she has since been as-
sured by very many of the oldest and most intelligent of the tribe
that the 'Origin of the Robin-red-breast' has been current in the tribe
from the earliest recollections."
Mrs. Anna Jameson also used the legend in her books, Winter Studies
and Summer Rambles in Canada (New York, 1839), II, pp. 178-180
and Sketches in Canada and Rambles Among the Red Men (London,
1852), pp. 203-205. She credited Mrs. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft as
It is possible that both Dr. Oilman and Mrs. Jameson had access to
the "Literary Voyager." Schoolcraft kept the issues intact and showed
them to friends who visited him. The Reverend Peter Dougherty, for
example, recorded in his diary (July 16, 1838) that he examined the
"Literary Voyager." (Dougherty Collection, University of Michigan
Historical Collections.) Moreover, Mrs. Jameson's published account
of the legend, "Origin of the Robin," is almost identical to the
version published in the "Literary Voyager." Only a few words have
66. The biographical sketch of Waub Ojeeg is continued in Issue Number
Four, January 12, 1827. Schoolcraft later used this material for an
account of Waub Ojeeg in The Indian and His Wigwam, or Char-
acteristics of the Red Race of America (New York, 1848), pp.
67. Schoolcraft kept a detailed journal of his observations of Indian life
and customs while he was Indian agent. Episodes like the ones de-
scribed here were recorded in minute detail and constitute one of the
finest collections of Indian material in existence. They are now in the
Schoolcraft Collection in the Library of Congress. This account of
Chippewa superstitions also appeared, in slightly different form, in
Issue Number One of "The Literary Voyager." Schoolcraft gave no
explanation for the repetition.
68. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
69. This poem was written by Schoolcraft for the Knickerbocker Maga-
zine. See Schoolcraft Papers, Library of Congress, Vol. 37, pt 1, p.
70. A literal translation of the Chippewa name for this fish Ad-dik-
71. Schoolcraft was not exaggerating when he extolled the edibility of the
white fish. Scores of travellers who visited the Sault area have raved
about this fish. Anna Jameson, for example, wrote: "I have eaten
tunny in the Gulf of Genoa, anchovies fresh out of the Bay of
Naples, and trout of the Salz-kammergut, and divers other fishy
dainties rich and rare, but the exquisite, the refined white fish ex-
ceeds them all . . ." Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada,
II, pp. 220.
The Literary Voyager
72. There is no indication of the author of this piece. It may have been
Schoolcraft, one of the Johnstons, or a member of the garrison at
73. From December until navigation on the Lakes opened early in May,
Sault Ste. Marie was almost completely isolated from the outside
world. Mail was delivered by "Express" from Detroit three or four
times during the winter. In January, 1831, it took the mail carrier
and a party of citizens from the Sault five days to travel to Mackinac
Island on snow shoes, a distance of 45 miles. Jeremiah Porter, Journal,
Michigan History, XXXVIII (December, 1954), pp. 356, 359.
74. This statement may have been made by Mrs. John Johnston or one
of her daughters.
75. This is one of the poems which Schoolcraft wrote to Jane Johnston
during their courtship. The poems and love letters between the two
are in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress.
76. According to the Ojibway historian, William Warren, Waub Ojeeg
and his force were saved from certain defeat by the timely arrival
of sixty warriors from Sandy Lake who held back the Sioux until
Waub Ojeeg could rally his men. Warren, History of the Ojibway
Nation, pp. 246-251.
77. The original of this war song is in the bound volume, "The Poetic
Remains of John Johnston Esq," in the Schoolcraft Papers in the
Library of Congress. It was reproduced in Thomas McKenney's Tour
to the Lakes (Baltimore, 1827), pp. 189-190; and the Michigan
Pioneer and Historical Collections, XXXII (1903), pp. 345-346.
78. Waub Ojeeg's battle with the moose became part of the folklore of
his tribe and was circulated widely. In fact, a figure of a moose was
carved on his gravepost in memory of his "desperate conflict with an
enraged animal of this kind." Schoolcraft, Information Respecting
the History, Conditions, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the
US. (Philadelphia, 1853), I, pp. 356-357.
79. The legend was later published by Schoolcraft in the Columbian
Lady's and Gentlemen's Magazine, I (1844), pp. 90-91; under the
title, "Moowis, or the Man Made Up of Rags and Dirt: A Tradi-
tionary Legend of the Ojibways," in Oneota or The Red Race of
America (New York, 1844-45), pp. 381-384; and the Red Race of
America (New York, 1847), pp. 175-178.
Schoolcraft added the following comment to the legend in the later
"It is a characteristic of some of the Indian legends, that they con-
vey a moral which seems clearly enough to denote, that a part of these
legends was invented to convey instruction to the young folks who
listen to them. The known absence of all harsh methods among the
Indians, in bringing up their children, favors this idea. This tale ad-
dresses itself plainly to girls ; to whom it teaches the dangers of what
we dominate coquetry. It would seem from this, that beauty, and its
concomitant, a passion for dress, among the red daughters of Adam
and Eve, has the same tendency to create pride, and nourish self-
conceit, and self-esteem, and assure a tyranny over the human heart,
which writers tell us, these qualities have among their white-skinned,
auburn-haired, and blue-eyed progeny the world over. The term Moo-
wis is one of the most derogative and offensive possible. It is derived
from the Ojibway substantive, mo, filth, or excrement. [H.R.S.].
80. In his Personal Memoirs, p. 67, Schoolcraft reported that on one
occasion when the waves broke "in a long series, above our heads,
and rolling down our breasts into the canoe," Governor Cass remarked
"That was a fatherly one . . ."
81. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
82. Nathan Bailey, The Universal Etymological English Dictionary (Lon-
83. Schoolcraft was the author of this article. From 1810 to 1817 he
managed glass-making factories in New York, Vermont, and New
84. Governor Cass' address to the Legislative Council is found in Mes-
sages of the Governors of Michigan, edited by George N. Fuller
(Lansing, 1925), I, pp. 27-33.
85. This tale was published by Schoolcraft in Algic Researches, II, pp.
91-104, and the Myth of Hiawatha and Other Oral Legends (Phila-
delphia, 1856), pp. 202-212, Mrs. Anna Jameson also used this legend
which follows almost verbatim the account found in the "Literary
Voyager" in her Winter Studies and Summer Rambles, II, pp. 166-
86. This is not the end of the legend. Schoolcraft planned to complete it
in a later issue of the "Literary Voyager." It is possible that it ap-
peared in one of the issues, now missing. The ending which is ap-
pended is taken from Algic Researches, II, pp. 98-104. It was written
by Jane Johnston Schoolcraft whose Indian name, "Bame-wa-wa-ge-
zhik-a-quay," meant "Woman of the Stars Rushing through the Sky."
87. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft.
88. The original of this poem, written by Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft, is in the
Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress,
The Literary Voyager
89. Editor, writer [H.R.S.].
90. Abraham [H.R.S.].
91. Hosea, VII, 8. [H.R.S.].
92. Solon, as related by Plato from Egyptian. [H.R.S.].
93. See Milman's History of the Jews. [H.R.S.].
94. Buckland's Reliquae. [H.R.S.].
95. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
96. I speak. [H.R.S.].
97. The sixth issue of the "Literary Voyager" published about February
1, 1827, is missing, as well as Numbers ten, twelve, and the first part
of eleven. A search of the voluminous Schoolcraft Collection in the
Library of Congress did not uncover the missing manuscripts, nor
were they located in Schoolcraft Papers in other leading research col-
lections in the United States.
98. A flintlock gun.
99. Sault Ste. Marie.
100. The informant of this tale is not known, although it was probably
one of the Johnstons.
101. Mrs. John Johnston.
102. The village of the Garden River Chippewa was located north of
Sugar Island on the Ontario shore of the St. Mary's river.
103. Point aux Pins is on the Canadian shore about eight miles west of
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.
104. Point Iroquois, now called Naomikong Point, is about thirty miles
west of Sault Ste. Marie on Whitefish Bay.
105. Alexander Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian
Territories between the Years 1760 and 1776 (New York, 1809).
106. Hibernicus was a pseudonym for John Johnston.
107. See note 39 above.
108. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
109. White-man [H.R.S.],
110. The author of this poem is not known. It was probably one of the
Johnstons, perhaps George.
111. Schoolcraft was probably the author of this poem. During his life-
time, he wrote hundreds of poems and judging from the size of his
poetry collection in the Library of Congress, he never discarded any
of them. Unfortunately, his zest for verse was never matched by
ability to write in this medium.
112. This tale was also prepared for the "Literary Voyager" by Mrs. Jane
Schoolcraft. There is no evidence to determine the identity of her
informer, although it was probably her mother, Mrs. John Johnston.
The story was published in Algic Researches, I, pp. 191-199; Histori-
cal and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Conditions
and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadel-
phia, 1852), II, pp. 202-204; Myth of Hiawatha, pp. 52-70; The
Indian Fairy Book, pp. 98-101. Mrs. Anna Jameson published the
legend in Winter Studies and Summer Rambles. Schoolcraft also per-
mitted Dr. Chandler Oilman to include it in his book, Life on the
Lakes, II, pp. 216-224.
113. Narrative Journal of Travels (Albany, 1821), pp. 211-212; Summary
Narratives of an Exploratory Expedition to the Sources of the Mis-
sissippi River in 1820 (Philadelphia, 1855), pp. 113-114.
114. Narrative Journal of Travels, pp. 282-283
115. Charles G. Haines was a personal friend of Schoolcraft whom he met
while the latter was manager of a glass-making factory in Salisbury,
Vermont. Schoolcraft wrote to him often describing his travels in the
West. In this letter, he described his trip from Detroit to Chicago to
serve as Secretary to the Indian Treaty Commission.
116. Hon. Lewis Cass. [H.R.S.].
117. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
118. Sampson Occum (1723-ca792), an Indian, was ordained in 1759 as
a Presbyterian missionary. After two years of service among the
Oneidas, Occum directed a fund-raising campaign for a school for
Indians. The 100,000 pounds which he raised in England helped start
Dartmouth College, which was founded as an Indian school.
119. Captain Hendricks was a "respectable Indian" residing with the
120. Henry Obookaiah escaped from the tribal wars in Hawaii and came to
New England in 1810. He became a Christian, obtained an education,
and attempted to reduce the Hawaiian language to writing. He died
in 1817 before fulfilling this ambition.
121. Schoolcraft was referring to Roger or Eleazer Williams. The latter
The Literary Voyager
was the first Protestant missionary to work among the Indians. Dur-
ing the seventeenth century, he served the Pequots and Narragan-
setts of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Eleazer Williams later
served the Oneidas after they went to Green Bay, Wisconsin, in the
122. John Eliot was a missionary among the Indians of Massachusetts in
the seventeenth century.
123. David Brainard served as a missionary to Indian tribes in Pennsyl-
vania and New York. After his death in 1747, he was replaced by his
124. Samuel Kirkland was a congregational missionary to the Iroquois.
125. Theodat G. Sagard, a Recollect lay brother, missionary, and historian,
administered to the Huron Indians in Canada in the seventeenth
126. Schoolcraft quoted a section of a statement made by President Jeffer-
son: "To Captain Hendrick, the Delawares, Mohicans and Munries,"
Washington, December 21, 1808. Letters and Addresses of Thomas
Jefferson, Edited by William B. Parker and Jonas Viles (New York,
1909), pp. 188-191.
127. Zina Pitcher was army surgeon at Fort Brady in 1827. Before his
retirement in 1836, he won distinction in the army and was close to
the attainment of the rank of U. S. Surgeon General. He opened a
private medical practice in Detroit and became active in the social
and political life of the city. He served as Mayor of Detroit in 1840,
1841, and 1843, and in 1842, led a successful movement to authorize
building of five public schools, which earned him the title, "Father
of Detroit's Schools."
While at Sault Ste. Marie, he studied remedies used by Indians for
illness and later provided Schoolcraft with material on the subject.
128. See Alexander Mackenzie, A General History of the Fur Trade from
Canada to the North-West (London, 1802).
129. Claytonia Virginica. [H.R.S.].
130. The original of this poem written by Henry Schoolcraft to his wife
is in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of Congress.
131. Historical Notes Respecting the Indians of North America with Re-
marks on the Attempts to Convert and Civilize Them.
132. All of the Indian chiefs mentioned were famous orators of Iroquois
tribes. Skenandoah was an Oneida; the others were members of the
133. Archaeologia Americana. Transactions and Collections of the Ameri-
can Antiquarian Society (Worcester, Massachusetts, 1820), Vol. 1.,
134. Lake Superior, so called by the Indian. [H.R.S.].
135. Take it away take it away. [H.R.S.].
136. The account of the Papuckewis legend in Schoolcraft's Myth of Hia-
watha (Philadelphia, 1856), pp. 52-70, is much longer than the one
which appeared here.
137. Continued from Issue No. 3.
138. Claytonia Virginica [H.R.S.].
139. June [H.R.S.].
140. Means: print of the Loon's foot [H.R.S.].
141. The Mendawakantons were a branch of the Dakotah Sioux.
142. Schoolcraft had a special interest in the adoption of Indian names for
topographical places. As a member of the Legislative Council of the
Territory of Michigan, he worked devotedly on a plan to introduce
Indian names for new townships and counties. In 1838, while Super-
intendent of Indian Affairs, he prepared a similar proposal for Gov-
ernor Stevens T. Mason. Many of his recommendations were adopted
by the Governor and the Legislature, including losco, Tuscola, Leeli-
nau, Oscoda, and Alpena. Michigan House Documents (1838), pp.
143. Shawandasee [H.R.S.].
144. Zebulon M. Pike, Exploratory Travels Through the Western Terri-
tories of North America Performed in the years 1805, 1806, 1807
(London, 1811), p. 79.
145. The last twenty manuscript pages of this issue are missing.
146. The second installment in the series of letters to Charles Haines,
"Sketches of Western Scenery," was apparently published in one of
the missing issues of the "Literary Voyager."
147. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
148. This poem, written by Henry Schoolcraft, is in the Schoolcraft Papers
in the Library of Congress.
149. The first installment on the "Fur Trade" probably appeared in Issue
No. 10, now missing.
The Literary Voyager
150. Marquis Francois Jean de Chastelloux (1734-1788), a major general
in Rachambeau's French Army in America from 1780 to 1782, was
author of Travels in North America in the Years, 1780, 1781, 1782
151. Comte de Constantin Francois Chaiseboeuf Volney (1757-1820), the
French scholar, wrote A View of the Climate and Soil of the United
States of America (London, 1804).
152. Vicomte Francois Rene de Chateaubriand (1768-1848), a French
writer and statesman, was author of Atala: or The Amours of Two
Indians in the Wilds of America (London, 1802).
153. H. M. Brackenridge, Views of Louisiana; together with a Journal of
a Voyage up the Missouri River in 1811 (Pittsburgh, 1814).
154. Amos Stoddard, Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana
155. David Drake, Natural and Statistical View of Cincinnati and the
Miami County (Cincinnati, 1815).
156. William Darby, A Geographical Description of Louisiana (Philadel-
157. Thomas Nuttall, Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory
158. A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri, including Some Observations
on the Mineralogy, Geology, Geography, Antiques, Soil, Climate,
Population, and Productions of Missouri and Arkansas and other
Sections of the Western Country (New York, 1819).
159. In 1819 under Calhoun's direction, Major General Jacob Brown, com-
mander of the U. S. Army of the North, ordered Lt. Colonel Henry
Leavenworth to establish a military post at the confluence of the
Mississippi and St. Peters' Rivers. The fort was completed by Colonel
Josiah Snelling who relieved Leavenworth in 1820. Another military
detachment erected Fort Atkinson near the present city of Omaha on
the Yellowstone River.
160. Schoolcraft gave the American public an account of this historical
expedition in Narrative Journal of Travels through the Northwestern
Region of the U. S. (Albany, 1822).
161. The packs of L'Ance are worth more than those of any other post in
the Lake, from the unusual proportion of beaver. [H.R.S.] .
162. Continued from Issue No. 12.
163. This poem was written by Mrs. Henry Schoolcraft about her grand-
father, Waub Ojeeg. The original poem, which differs slightly from
this one published in the "Literary Voyager," is in the Schoolcraft
Papers in the Library of Congress.
164. A past sound. [H.R.S.].
165. The passing thunder. [H.R.S.].
166. The North Wind. [H.R.S.].
167. He Who Takes After the Wind. [H.R.S.].
168. On his return trip to Sault Ste. Marie, Henry Schoolcraft stopped at
Vernon, New York, and "took along to the West, which had been
favorable to me, my youngest brother, James, and my sister, Maria
Eliza." Both remained at the Sault. James worked for his brother at
the Indian agency and later was employed as a trader at the Sault. He
married Anna Maria Johnston, the sister of Henry's wife, Jane. James'
private life was a continued source of worry to his brother he drank
excessively, associated with "bad company," gambled, and was in-
volved in several scandals. He was mysteriously killed July 6, 1846,
by an unknown assailant, probably by the notorious John Tanner.
Maria Eliza later married John Hulbert, the post sutler at Fort
169. Elmwood was the name given by Schoolcraft to the Indian agency
house at Sault Ste. Marie. Completed in 1827, it was situated in a
beautiful grove of elms on the St. Mary's River. It was a spacious
building, containing fifteen rooms, including an office. The building
has been preserved and restored as an historical site by the Chippewa
County Historical Society.
170. Many years passed before Henry and Jane Schoolcraft recovered
from the tragic death of their son, William. Immediately after his
death, they packed clothing and stayed at the Johnston residence
171. This letter was probably written by Schoolcraft to his friend, Samuel
Conant of New York City, with whom the Schoolcraft's stayed while
they visited the East in 1825.
172. This poem was appended to a letter which Schoolcraft wrote to his
wife, Jane, while he was attending the Indian Treaty meeting at
Prairie du Chien in 1825. The original is in the Schoolcraft Papers in
the Library of Congress.
173. John Hulbert, the post sutler at Fort Brady, who was a close friend
and later a brother-in-law of Schoolcraft, may have been the author
of these lines.
The Literary Voyager
174. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft.
175. The identity of "E.K." is not known.
176. Zina Pitcher.
177. The original of this poem dated December 8, 1825, and signed by
John Johnston, is in the Schoolcraft Papers in the Library of
178. Probably written by Jane or Henry Schoolcraft.
179. Major Robert Rogers in command of a force of two hundred Royal
Rangers occupied Detroit on November 29, 1760.
180. Chippewa name for Niagara. [H.R.S]
181. April [H.R.S.] .
182. Henry R. Schoolcraft.
183. The remaining pages of this issue were lost.
"Age of Science, A Satire" (Henry R.
Algic Researches (Henry R. School-
Algoma, meaning of, 2
"Algonac, A Chippewa Lament on
Hearing the Revellie at the Post
of St. Mary's," 87-89
Algonquin, language, 1, 31-33
American Board of Commissioners for
Foreign Missions, 11
American Fur Co., xxii, 169-170 n. 25
Andaigweos, Chippewa leader at La-
Anderson, Rufus, 12-13
Anderson, Thomas G., 98
Annamikens (Little Thunder), 169 n.
Augussawa, father of Gitshee laubance,
Bad River, Wis., 26, 51
Baimwawa (The Passing Thunder),
of the Stars Rushing Through the
Sky) : see Schoolcraft, Mrs. Jane
Ba-wa-teeg: see Sault Ste. Marie,
Bear, as totem, 54
Big Throat: see Grosse Guelle
"The Birchen Canoe" (Henry R.
Bois Brule (Broule*) River, Wis., death
of Indians at mouth of, 41
Brackenridge, H. M., 132, 182 n. 153
Brady, Hugh, 4, 10
Brainard, David, 109, 180 n. 123
The Broken Tooth: see Catawabeta
Brown, Catherine, Cherokee mission-
The Buffalo (Pezhickee): see Gitchee
Butte des Morts, Wis., treaty of, 31
La Butte de Terre (Sat-tooke-wang)
at Sault Ste. Marie, 3-4
Calhoun, John C., xvii, xviii, 170 n. 34
Campbell, Nancy, 170 n. 29
Camudwa, brother of Waub Ojeeg, 41,
Canowakeed (He Who Takes after the
Carver, Jonathan, 83
Cass, Lewis, 106-107, 167 n. 9, 177 n.
acrostic to, 58
bravery of, xix, 57-58
expedition, 1820, xvii, xviii-xxv, 133-
134, 168 n. 16, 171 n. 38
Indian culture, interest in, xx
Inquiries Respecting the History,
Traditions, Languages, Manners,
Customs and Religion . . . of the
Indians Living Within the U. S.,
xx, 31, 168 n. 19, 174 n. 61
message to Mich, legislative council,
and Henry Schoolcraft, xix-xx
Catawabeta (The Broken Tooth), 169
The Catfish: see Mizi
Chacopee (The Six) of Snake River,
Wis., 169 n. 23
Chastelloux, Francois, 132, 182 n. 150
Chateaubriand, Vicomte Francois, 132,
182 n. 152
Chequamegon Bay, Wis.: see LaPointe
Chianokwaut or Terns Covert (The
Lowering or Dark Cloud), 169 n.
Chippewa beliefs, concerning phenom-
ena of nature, 3-5, 42-43, 136, 171
Chippewa County (Mich.) Historical
Society, 183 n. 169
burial, 10-11, 85-86
juvenile feasts, 119-121
Chippewa language, xx, 2, 46-47, 62-
vocabulary, xx, 62-63
Chippewa (Ojibway) legends (myths,
tales, traditions), xv, xxi, xxiv
informants of, 30, 51-52, 170 n. 31,
174 n. 65
"The Forsaken Brother," 93-96
"Mishosha or the Magician and his
Daughters," 64-71, 177 n. 85-86
"Moowis, the Indian Coquette, 56-
"Origin of the Miscodeed or Maid
of Taquimenon," 122-124
"Origin of the Robin," 37-39
"Pebon and Seegwun" (Winter and
"The Rainbow," 21-23
"The Vine and Oak," 19-20
"The Weasel and Wolf," 103
Chippewa prophets, 82-83
Chippewa religion, 117
burial customs, 10-11, 108
sun worship, 86
superstitions, 3-5, 7-8, 42-43, 97-99,
107-109, 171 n. 38
Chippewa River, Wis., half-breed from,
Chippewa songs, war, 51-52
Chippewa superstitions: see Chippewa
as allies of French, 40
ancient seat of, 9
Americans, attitudes toward, 16-17
bands, 6, 9, 81-83, 178 n. 102
British, attitudes toward, 136-137
characteristics of, 1
chief ruler of, 9
census of band, 9
decorated by British, 9
eating habits, 9, 42, 119-121
female role in camp, 120
fishing at Sault Ste. Marie, xviii
Garden River, Ontario, band, 81-83,
178 n. 102
grammar of, xx
grave post of, 86
historical narratives of, 78-81, 81-83
history of, 23-26, 37-42, 50-56
hostilities with other tribes, 1
hunting practices of, 52-56, 110, 120-
interviews with leaders of, 169 n. 23
Iroquois, hostilities with, 81-83
liquor, used by, 14-16
medicine of, 42
Manito poles, 5
relation to Ottawas, 31
origin of, 31
origin of name, Ojibway, 31
Outagami, hostilities with, 23-26, 31,
39-41, 50-52, 134-135, 172 n. 51
picture writing among, 102-103
oral history of, xxi
sick, treatment of, 5
Sioux, hostilities with, xix, 23-26,
30, 39-41, 50-52, 134-135, 172 n.
Sioux, intermarriage with, 39-40
songs of, 103-104
speakers of, 9
speech of Shingabawossin, 16-17
starvation among, 9, 120-121
sun worship among, 86
totems of, 24, 29, 40, 54, 173-174 n.
war parties of, 52-53
as warrior class, 31
"The Choice" (Henry R. Schoolcraf t) ,
Conant, Samuel, 170-171 n. 34
Cornplanter, 114, 180 n. 132
Court Oreilles Lake (Ottawa Lake),
Wis., 26, 169 n. 23
Crane, as totem, 29, 173-174 n. 57
Crawford, William H., xvii
Cherokees, missionary among, 11-14
"Cricket or Whispers from a Voice in
the Corner" (Henry R. School-
Gushing, Caleb, 170-171 n. 34
Darby, William, 133, 182 n. 1S6
"The Dead Son," 160
"Death and Truth," 155
Dougherty, Rev. Peter, 174-175 n. 65
DuPonceau, Percy, 170-171 n. 34
Eliot, John, 109, 180 n. 122
Erin Hall (Johnston home at Sault
Ste. Marie), 29
Farmer's Brother, 114, 181 n. 132
The First Born: see Gitchee Waishkee
Flat Mouth: see Guelle Plat
Fond du Lac, Minn.
Chippewas from, 169 n. 23
Chippewa war party from, 50-53
treaty of, 30
"The Forsaken Brother," a Chippewa
legend, 93-96, 179 n. 112
Forsyth, Major Robert A., 107
Fort Brady (Sault Ste. Marie)
garrison library at, 172-173 n. 53
Fox Indians: see Outagamies
Freeman, John, "Pirated Editions of
Schoolcraft's Oneota," 170-171 n.
Furs, prices of, 54
at LaPointe, xxi-xxii, 40-41
liquor, use in, 131
operation of, 131-132
regulations, difficulties in enforce-
ment of, 131-132
relative values of, 135
value of, to Indians, 54
Gallatin, Albert, 170-171 n. 34
Garden River, Ontario, Chippewa
band of, 81-83
Gaulthier, murderer of Soangagezhick,
Geneva, New York, glass factory at,
Gilman, Chandler R., author of Life
on the Lakes, xv, 174-175 n. 65,
179 n. 112
Gitchee Waishkee (the First Born or
Pezhickee, or the Buffalo), band
Gitschee Gausenee: see Wauwauishkum
personal strength of, 135-136
prowess as hunter, 135-136
or "The Strong Man of Keweena,"
Gitchi-gumi: see Superior, Lake
"Glory" (Henry R. Schoolcraft) , 59-
Grand Island (Lake Superior), Chip-
pewa war party from, 50-53
Grosse Guelle (Big Throat), 169 n. 23
Guelle Plat (Flat Mouth), 169 n. 23
Gus-ki-pe-ga-gun (medicine sack), 86,
Haines, Charles G., letters from Henry
Schoolcraft quoted, 105-107, 128-
129, 137-138, 179 n. 115
Halket, John, Notes on the Indians,
Hamilton, New York, xvi
Hendricks, Captain (Soi-en-ga-rah-ta) ,
108, 179 n. 119
Henry, Alexander, account of Battle
of Point Iroquois, 83
Hibernicus: see Johnston, John
Historical and Statistical Information
Respecting the History, Condi-
tions, and Prospects of the Indian
Tribes <?/ U. S. (Henry R. School-
craft), xiv, xxvi
Holliday, John, 136
Hudson's Bay Fur Co., xxii, 169 n. 25
Hulbert, John, 183 n. 173
The Image Stone: see Shingaba Wossin
Index to Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes
of the United States (Frances
Nichols), 167 n. 3
Indian canoe, description of, 107
Indian lance: see Sheemaugun
Indian legends (myths, tales, tradi-
tions) : see Chippewa legends
Indian medicine sack (bag, pouch):
Indian names, 124-125
Indian songs, 103-104
Indian superstitions: see Chippewa re-
Indian treaties, defects of, 59
Indian village, description of, 108
Americans, treatment by, 114
British, treatment by, 114, 136-137
burial ceremony and customs, 10-11,
Christianity, effects upon, 108-109
construction of earthen cooking ves-
depopulation, causes of, 110-111, 115-
education of children, xxiii
extinction of, 110-111
grave posts of, 86, 102
hunting practices of, 52-56, 120-121,
hunting, reliance upon, 110
implements of, 97-99
intertribal marriages, 39-41
intertribal warfare of, xix, 1, 23-26,
39-41, 50-53, 134-135
language of, 46-47
medicine of, 108
mental traits of, 107-109, 117
missionaries among, 108-111
picture writing of, 102-103
pottery of, 97-99
religious beliefs of, 117. See also
starvation among, 119-121
totems of, 24, 29, 40, 54, 173-174 n.
vocabulary of, xx
See also Chippewas; Sioux; Outa-
Inquiries Respecting the History, Tra-
ditions, Languages, Manners, Cus-
toms, and Religion . . . of the
Indians Living Within the U. S.
(Lewis Cass), xx
"Invitation to an Autumnal Walk,"
"Invocation to my maternal grand-
father on hearing his descent from
Chippewa ancestors misrepre-
sented" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft),
cannibalism among, 82
Chippewas, hostilities with, 1, 81-83
Jameson, Anna B., author of Winter
Studies and Summer Rambles, xv,
xxiv, 171 n. 35, 174 n. 65, 177 n.
85, 179 n. 112
Jefferson, Thomas, statement to Indian
Johnson, Sir William, receives Ma-
Johnston, Anna Maria, xxiii
Johnston, Charlotte, xxiii
Johnston, Eliza, xxiii
Johnston, George, 170 n. 28
as informant of Indian culture, xxiv
positions in U. S. Indian Bureau,
Johnston, Jane: see Schoolcraft, Mrs.
Johnston, John, 170 n. 26, 27, 29
activities in War of 1812, xxii
biographical sketch of, xxi-xxiii,
169 n. 24, 25
courage of, 136
education of children, xxii
as fur trader, xxiii
Hibernicus, as pseudonym of, 84
informant of Chippewa war song,
informant of Indian culture, xv
at LaPointe, 24
marriage to Ozha-guscoday-way-
poem by, 159
Johnston, John McDouall, xxiii
Johnston, Mrs. John (Ozha-guscoday-
way-quay or Woman of the
Green Glade), 172 n. 112
account of Chippewa, 23-26, 39-42,
autobiographical sketch, 5-7
education of children, xxiii
Indian attack averted by, xxv
influence of, xxv
informant of Chippewa culture, xxv
marriage to John Johnston, xxii
sketch of Waub Ojeeg by, 23-26, 39-
as source of Indian data, 171 n, 39
translation of statement by, 5-7
Johnston, Lewis Saurin, xxiii
Johnston, William, xxiii
as collector of Indian data, 170 n.
Keene, N. H., glass factory at, xvi
Chippewa war party from, 50-53
Indians of, 134-137
Kewikonce, Chippewa chief, 98-99
Kirkland, Samuel, 109, 180 n. 124
Lac du Flambeau, Wis., 26, 53
Indians of, 134-137
fur trade at, 135, 182 n. 159
"Lament for the Race" (Henry R.
LaPointe (Madeline Island), 172 n. 51
Chippewa band at, 6, 9
as Chippewa capital, 9
Chippewa chiefs of, 9
Chippewa war party from, 50-53
Chippewas of, 9, 23-26, 39-42, 50-
fur trade at, xxi-xxii
farming on, 53
Indian subagency at, xxiii
John Johnston at, xxi-xxii
war dance at, 51
Waub Ojeeg at, xxii, 138-142
Leech Lake, Minn., Indians of, 169 n.
Leelinau (pseudonym): see School-
craft, Mrs. Jane Johnston
Life on the Lakes (Chandler R. Oil-
"Lines of a Father on the Death of
His Son" (Henry R. Schoolcraft),
"Lines, on Coming to Reside at Sault
Ste. Marie" (Henry R. School-
"Lines to a Friend Asleep" (Mrs. Jane
"Lines Written under Affliction" (Mrs.
Jane Schoolcraft), 84-85
"Lines Writen under Severe Pain and
Sickness" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft),
Literary Voyager (Muzzeniegun), xiv
circulation of, xv, xxvi, 167 n. 9,
174-175 n. 65
contributors to, xxv
format of, xxvi
informants of data in, 121
missing issues of, 178 n. 97
production of, xxiv, 90
re-publication of, xxvi, 170-171 n. 34
significance of, xv
Little Thunder: see Annamikens
The Lowering or Dark Cloud: see Chi-
McKenney, Thomas, xxiv
Mackinac Island, Indian grave posts
Ma Mongazida (Mashickeeoshe) , xxiii,
24, 40, 122-124
Manito poles, 5, 42-43
Martineau, Harriet, xxiv
Mashickeeoshe: see Ma Mongazida
Meda (Medawin, Me-da-we-win) So-
ciety, Chippewa ceremony of, 36-
Me-da-we-win: see Meda Society
Medawin: see Meda Society
Miamis (Miamies), as warrior class, 31
"Michigan" (Henry R. Schoolcraft),
Mikeengwun (stone chisel), 97
Miscogandic-a-ub (a prophet), 23
Miscomonetoes (The Red Insect or
Red Devil), mentioned, 169 n. 23
"Mishosha, or the Magician and His
Daughters," a Chippewa legend,
64-71, 177 n. 85, 86
Missionaries, success among Indians,
Mizi (The Catfish), 9
Mongozid (The Loon's Foot), men-
tioned, 169 n. 23
Monomine Kashee (The Rice Maker),
mentioned, 169 n. 23
Monroe, James, xvii
Montcalm, speech to Chippewas, 40
Montreal River, Chippewa of, 7-8
"Moowis, The Indian Coquette," a
Chippewa legend, 56-57, 176-177
The Morning Star: see Waub Onng
Mudjekewis, chief ruler of Chippewas,
Mundua (Mundwas), 1
Mushkowegeechis (Strong or Angry
Sky), murder of, 85-86. See also
Muzzeniegun, meaning of word, xiv.
See also Literary Voyager
Nadowasieu (Rattlesnake in the
Naidosagee, chief of Chippewa band,
xxv, 29, 30
Namekagon River (Namacagon), Wis.,
Narrative Journal of Travels (Henry
R. Schoolcraft) , xvii
Nawondego, as Chippewa warrior, 134-
Neezakapenase (The Single Bird), son
of Gitshee laubance, 135
Nichols, Frances S., Index to School-
craft's Indian Tribes of the United
States, xiv, 167 n. 3
Nodowa (Nodowas, Iroquois), 1
Notes on the Indians (John Halket),
Nuttal, Thomas, 133, 182 n. 157
Obookaiah, Henry, 108, 179 n. 120
Occum, Sampson, 108, 179 n. 118
Ojibways: see Chippewas
Oneota (Henry R. Schoolcraft), 170-
171 n. 34
Ontario Indians, at Garden River, 81-
Ontonagon, Chippewa war party from,
Ontonagon Boulder, 171 n. 38
"Origin of the Indian Tribes" (Henry
R. Schoolcraft), 72-76
"Origin of the Miscodeed, or the Maid
of the Taquimenon," a Chippewa
"Origin of the Red Breast," a Chip-
pewa legend, 174-175 n. 65
"Origin of the Robin," a Chippewa
"Otagamaid" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft),
Ottawa Lake (Wis.) : see Court Oreil-
Ottawas, relation to Chippewas, 31
Outagamies (Ott agamies, Outagamis
Chippewa hostilities with, 23-26, 31,
Ozha-guscoday- way-quay: see John-
ston, Mrs. John
"Papuckewis," a Chippewa legend,
117-119, 181 n. 136
The Passing Thunder: see Baimwawa
"Pebon and Seegwun" (Winter and
Spring), a Chippewa legend, 2-3
Pezhickee (The Buffalo) : see Gitchee
Pictured Rocks (Mich.), 123
Pitcher, Dr. Zina, 147, 158-159
biographical sketch of, 180 n. 127
poem by, 112
Point aux Pins, Ontario, 82
Point Iroquois (Lake Superior), Indian
battle at, 81-83, 178 n. 104
address credited to, 162-164
appeal to western tribes, 161-164
conspiracy of, 161-162
Port Lake, Wis., 169 n. 23
Potawatomies (Pottowattomies), 11, 16
Prairie du Chien, Wis., Treaty of, 14-
"The Rainbow," a Chippewa legend,
Red Jacket (Sagatowa), 114, 180 n.
Red Race of America (Henry R.
Red River, Minn., 169 n. 23
"Reflections, on Viewing the Corpse of
William H. Schoolcraft" (Henry
R. Schoolcraft), 152-153
Reindeer, as totem, 24, 40
"Requiem, over the Grave of William
Henry Schoolcraft" (Henry R.
"Resignation" (Mrs. Jane Schoolcraft),
River Raison, Mich., 106
Rosa (pseudonym): see Schoolcraft,
Mrs, Jane Johnston
Sagard, Theodat G., 109, 180 n. 125
Sagatowa: see Red Jacket
St. Croix Falls (Wis.), Battle of, 30,
134-135, 174 n. 58
St. Mary's River, xxii, 30-31
Chippewa band of, 29
fishing in, xviii
See also Sault Ste, Marie
Salisbury, Vt, glass factory at, xvi
Sandy Lake, Minn., 169 n. 23, 176 n.
Sassaba, 172 n. 44
enmity toward Americans, xix, 168
Sault Ste. Marie (Ba-wa-teeg)
Butte de Terre (Sat-tooke-wang) at,
Chippewa bands at, 9
Chippewa burial ground at, 85
Chippewas, fishing at, xviii
Chippewa Meday of, 86
Chippewa name for, 166
Chippewa superstition about, 3-5
Chippewa vilage at, 82
Chippewa war party from, 50-53
Chippewas at, xviii, xxv, 29-31
description of, 1824, 144
discovery of, 1
Fort Brady established at, xix
fur trade at, xviii
history of, 166
inhabitants of, xxiii
isolation of, xxvi, 176 n. 73
Johnston home at, xxii
literary society at, xxvi
mail delivery to, 48, 176 n. 73
murder of Indian at, 9-11
poem about, 17-19
social life at, xxvi
speech of Shingaba Wossin at, 16-17
and War of 1812, xviii
Sault Ste. Marie Indian Agency, xviii,
172 n. 44, 183 n. 169
Indian visitors at, 136-137
jurisdiction of, xix
Schoolcraft, Henry R. (pseudonyms:
Abieca, Alalol, Antiquarius, Clio,
Damoetas, Ekedo, Eldega, Hermes,
Marquette, Nenabaim, Pagwabec-
Algic Researches, xv
appointment as Indian agent, xvii-
biographical sketch of, xiii-xxvi
books by, xiv, xvi, 133, 167 n. 1,
n. 6, 168 n. 11, n. 18, 169 n. 22,
170-171 n. 34, 171 n. 35, 172 n.
53, 179 n. 112, n. 113, n. 114, 182
children of, xxiv
Collection, Library of Congress, xiii
as collector of Indian data, xxi, 169
as compiler of Chippewa dictionary
and vocabulary, xx, 168 n. 21
debt to Johnston family, xv, xxi, xxiv
directives as Indian agent, xix
early life, xv-xvi
education of, xv-xvi
explorations and travels of, xvi, 105-
107, 128-129, 137-138
friendship with John Johnston, xxiii
as glass maker, xvi, 58-59, 168 n. 12
Historical and Statistical Informa-
tion Respecting the History, Con-
ditions and Prospects of the Indian
Tribes of the United States, xiv,
informants of Indian data, 121
interest in Indian names, 181 n. 142
interest in legends of Chippewas, xx-
interviews with Chippewas, xxi, 169
letter by, 105-107
library of, 172-173 n. 53
manuscript magazines of, xiv, xvi,
167 n. 5
marriage to Jane Johnston, xxiv
observer of Meda ceremony, 36-37
Schoolcraft, Henry R. (Continued)
as mineralogist on Cass expedition,
Narrative Journal of Travels, xvii
Oneota, 170-171 n. 34
poems by, 17-19, 33-35, 43-46, 49-50,
59-60, 72-76, 99-101, 112-114, 126-
127, 130-131, 148-149, 151, 164-165
Red Race of America, xv
Secretary to United States Indian
Treaty Commission, 1821, xvii
View of the Lead Mines of Missouri,
Schoolcraft, Mrs. Jane Johnston
(pseudonyms: Leelinau, Rosa),
education of, xxiv
as informant of Indian legends, xxiv,
37-39, 56-57, 64-71, 93-96, 122-
124, 179 n. 122
as interpreter, xxiv
Leelinau, contributor under pseu-
donym of, 5-7, 37-39, 56-57, 93-96,
122-124, 179 n. 112
notoriety as "northern Pocahontas,"
poems by, 5, 8, 26-27, 71, 84-85, 97,
138-142, 142-143, 155, 156, 157-158
poem addressed to, 49-50
Rosa, contributor under pseudonym
of, 5, 8, 26-27, 71, 84, 97, 142-143
Schoolcraft, James, 183 n. 168
Schoolcraft, Maria Eliza, 183 n. 168
Schoolcraft, Mrs. Mary Howard, xxvi
Schoolcraft, William H., xxiv
death of, 144-160, 164-165
Shawnees, origin of tribe, 115
Sheemaugun (lance), 164
Shingaba Wossin (The Image Stone),
169 n. 23, 172 n. 44
at Battle of Falls of St. Croix, 30
biographical sketch of, 29-31
as informant of Indian culture, xxv
speech to his band, 16-17
at Treaty of Prairie du Chien, 30
Shingwauk, a Chippewa Meday, 86
The Single Bird: see Neezakapenase
Sioux, Chippewas, hostilies with, xix,
134-135, 172 n. 51
The Six: see Chacopee
Skenandoah, 114, 180 n. 132
Smithsonian Institution, xiv
Snake River, Wis., 169 n. 23
Soangagezhick (The Strong or Angry
Sky), murder of, 9-11
See also Mushkowegeechis
Soi-en-ga-rah-ta: see Hendricks, Capt.
Stoddard, Amos, 132, 182 n. 154
The Strong Sky: see Soangagezhick
Superior, Lake (Gitchi Gumi), 1-2, 9,
23-24, 30, 80-81
Tahquamenon (Taquimenon) River
(Mich.), legend about, 122-124
Tecumseh, 109, 115-116
Temperance, among Indians, 14-16
Terns Covert: see Chianokwaut
Tod, Andrew, xxi
"To a Boy at School from His Mother"
(author unknown), 155-156
"To Mrs. Schoolcraft on the Anniver-
sary of her Birthday" (Henry R.
"To My Ever Beloved and Lamented
Son, William Henry" (Mrs. Jane
"To the Brave Who Fell in the War of
1812" (Henry R. Schoolcraft), 33
"To Sisters on a Walk in the Garden,
After a Shower" (Mrs. Jane
Totems: see Indians, Chippewas
Traverse City, Mich., Indian sub-
agency at, xxiii
Treaties: see Butte des Morts, Fond du
Lac, Prairie du Chien
Trowbridge, Charles C., xvii, 168 n. 16
U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, agen-
cies of, xxiii
View of the Lead Mines of Missouri
(Henry R. Schoolcraft), xvi
"The Vine and Oak," a Chippewa leg-
Volney, Comte de Constantin, 132, 182
Wabash River, description of, 128
Wabasha, a Sioux chief, 39-40
Wabekonjeewona, as Chippewa war-
Wabishkipenace (Wabishe Penais or
The White Bird), 169 n. 23, 171
Wabunakies (Wabnakies), 31
War of 1812, effect on John Johnston,
Warren, William W., 172 n. Si, 176
Waub Ojeeg (The White Fisher), 6, 9,
176 n. 76, n. 78
biographical sketch of, 23-26, 39-42,
death of, 56
encounter with moose, 55-56
exploits of, xxiii
father of Ozha-guscoday-way-quay,
leader of war party, 134-135
lodge at LaPointe, xxii, 138-142
marriages of, 54
as orator, 54-55
physical description of, 54-55
prowess as hunter, 52-56
poem about, 138-142
as trapper, 54-55
as tribal storyteller, xxv
Waub Onng Aqua (The Morning
Wauwaunishkum (Gitshee Gausenee),
of Montreal River, 7-8
The Waving Plum: see Wawabegwo-
Wawabegwonabec (The Waving
Wayishkee (The First Born), xxv
"The Weasel and Wolf," a Chippewa
"The White Fish" (Henry R. School-
The White Bird: see Wabishkipenace
The White Fisher: see Waub Ojeeg
Whiting, Henry, 167 n. 9
Williams, Eleazer, 108, 179-180 n. 121
Winter Studies and Summer Rambles
(Anna B. Jameson), xv
Woman of the Green Glade (Ozha-gus-
coday-way-quay) : see Johnston,
"Woman's Tears" (John Johnston),
Woodbridge, William, 170-171 n. 34
Yarns, George, 173 n. 54
"Yellow Isle" (Henry R. Schoolcraft) ,
(Continued from front flap)
circulated among students of Indian culture.
The most informative of them TO the "liter-
at Sault Ste, Marie during the winter of 1826-
This magazine, which Schoolcraft later gave
meaning "a printed document or book," con-
tained articles, poems, and announcements on
all aspects of Indian life and customs, The
subjects included historic Indian battles, In-
dian ceremonies, superstitions, burials, fur
trade, war chants and songs, totems, the effect
of alcohol upon Indians, and the intertribal
war between the Chippewa and Sioux, Of par-
ticular interest are the biographical sketches
of prominent Indian leaders, induding Waub
Ojeeg or the White Fisher, the famous war
chief at LaPointe; and Siung-a-ba-wossin,
head of the Chippewa band living along the
Si Mary's River; Schoolcraft presented for
the first time in the "Literary Voyager" some
of the lodge stories that he himself collected
copy, were written, the "Literary Voyager"
achieved wide distribution. Each issue circu-
lated among the citizens of Sault Ste, Marie
and then went to Schoolcraft's friends in De-
troit, New York, and other eastern cities.
(Contmwd on M pond)